Critical Earthquake Response of Elastic-Plastic Structures Under Near-Fault or Long-Duration Ground Motions: Closed-Form Approach via Impulse Input

Edited by: Izuru Takewaki

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 978-2-88919-742-2

Product Name: Frontiers Theme Book

The specialty section Earthquake Engineering is one branch of Frontiers in Built Environment and welcomes critical and in-depth submissions on earthquake ground motions and their effects on buildings and infrastructures. Manuscripts should yield new insights and ultimately contribute to a safer and more reliable design of building structures and infrastructures.

The scope includes the characterization of earthquake ground motions (e.g. near-fault, far-fault, short-period, long-period), their underlying properties, their intrinsic relationship with structural responses, and the true behaviors of building structures and infrastructures under risky and uncertain ground motions. More specific topics include recorded ground motions, generated ground motions, response spectra, stochastic modeling of ground motion, critical excitation, geotechnical aspects, soil mechanics, soil liquefaction, soil-structure interactions, pile foundations, earthquake input energy, structural control, passive control, active control, base-isolation, steel structures, reinforced concrete structures, wood structures, building retrofit, structural optimization, uncertainty analysis, robustness analysis, and redundancy analysis.

This eBook includes four original research papers, in addition to the Specialty Grand Challenge article, on the critical earthquake response of elastic-plastic structures under near-fault or long-duration ground motions which were published in the specialty section Earthquake Engineering. In the early stage of dynamic nonlinear response analysis of structures around 1960s, a simple hysteretic structural model and a simple sinusoidal earthquake ground motion input were dealt with together with random inputs. The steady-state response was tackled by an equivalent linearization method developed by Caughey, Iwan and others. In fact, the resonance plays a key role in the earthquake-resistant design and it has a strong effect even in case of near-fault ground motions. In order to draw the steady-state response curve and investigate the resonant property, two kinds of repetition have to be introduced. One is a cycle, for one forced input frequency, of the initial guess of the steady-state response amplitude, the construction of the equivalent linear model, the analysis of the steady-state response amplitude using the equivalent linear model and the update of the equivalent linear model based on the computed steady-state response amplitude. The other is the sweeping over a range of forced input frequencies. This process is quite tedious.

Four original research papers included in this eBook propose a new approach to overcome this difficulty. Kojima and Takewaki demonstrated that the elastic-plastic response as continuation of free-vibrations under impulse input can be derived in a closed form by a sophisticated energy approach without solving directly the equations of motion as differential equations. While, as pointed out above, the approach based on the equivalent linearization method requires the repetition of application of the linearized equations, the method by Kojima and Takewaki does not need any repetition. The double impulse, triple impulse and multiple impulses enable us to describe directly the critical timing of impulses (resonant frequency) which is not easy for the sinusoidal and other inputs without a repetitive procedure. It is important to note that, while most of the previous methods employ the equivalent linearization of the structural model with the input unchanged, the method treated in this eBook transforms the input into a series of impulses with the structural model unchanged. This characteristic guarantees high accuracy and reliability even in the large plastic deformation range. The approach presented in this eBook is an epoch-making accomplishment to open the door for simpler and deeper understanding of structural reliability of built environments in the elastic-plastic range

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