About this Research Topic
The animal production industry is a major user of antimicrobial agents which are necessary to meet the increasing demand of animal proteins for the growing world population. While accurate estimates of the volume of antimicrobials used in food production systems are lacking in many countries, widespread antimicrobial use (AMU) in food animal production is fueling the rise of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), which could lead to difficult-to treat bacterial infections in both humans and animals. The World Health Organization has identified AMR as one of the top three global public health problems, and resistance is posing a problem for farmers who are facing the loss of drug antimicrobial efficacy. The emergence, spread and transmission of AMR is a complex issue and can be influenced by several factors such as biosecurity (AMU, access, cleaning, disinfection, etc.). The origin and fate of the antimicrobial resistant and pathogenic bacteria found in food production systems needs to be established.
The microbiome in the animal gut plays an important role in maintaining overall health and in the development of the immune system, energy homeostasis and protection against pathogens. However, the environment and nutritional factors (feed, water, bedding and litter, etc.), practices (biosecurity and sanitation) and host factors (line, sex and age and disease conditions) can significantly influence the composition of the microbiome in an animal’s body. Therefore, it is important to study the molecular epidemiology and ecology of AMR (resistome). Therefore there is a need to further investigate the role of direct cross-infection or horizontal gene transfer of AMR and AMR bacteria, as well as host factors including immunity, which could influence the microbiome and resistome of importance to animal and human health.
This Research Topic will be open for reviews and original articles dealing with, but not limited to:
• ecology of microbiome of food production animals and their environment,
• the molecular mechanism of evolution and survival of pathogenic and resistant bacteria associated with food production animals,
• risk factors of their dissemination, distribution in relation to farms practices and environmental factors.
The emphasis will be on the relationship between microbiome, antimicrobial (resistome) and virulence (virulome) determinants as well as host immunity and their precise role in the survival and maintenance of pathogens. Research on the impact of environmental factors, lessons learned across the world, and best practices including alternative production methods and transformational adaptive management for healthy animal microbiota is also particularly welcomed.
PLEASE NOTE: while not necessary to allow the submission of a full manuscript, the abstracts are particularly useful to the Guest Editors for judging the scope of the content submitted to their collection. We therefore strongly encourage submitting them.
Keywords: antimicrobial use, pathogens, production animals, antimicrobial resistance, microbiome
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