About this Research Topic
In the past few years, there have been several developments in the field of genitourinary oncology, including major advances in systemic therapy, especially immunotherapy and targeted therapies. Therapies that modulate immune responses have shown great benefit in many cancer types. Several immune checkpoint inhibitors that target programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), its ligand PDL1, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) have already been approved for use in genitourinary cancers, representing the most important change in cancer treatment paradigm over the last decade.
An increasing number of genitourinary cancer clinical trials, including basket or umbrella trials, are enrolling patients on the basis of molecular and genetic predictors of efficacy. These studies promise to provide improved insight into the true utility of personalized medicine in the treatment of genitourinary cancers and several other cancer types. The emerging precision oncology approach aims to tailor disease treatment on the basis of individual and tumor variability; however, it still encounters several unresolved hurdles including tumor heterogeneity and recurrence, as well as unexplained drug resistance and lack of effective ways to monitor response to therapeutic treatments.
A set of biomarkers could be extremely useful in helping to stratify the risk of patients, detect early relapse, guide decision-making, and tailor follow-up. Current tumor biomarkers have low accuracy and low sensitivity when used as prognostic and predictive indexes. However, enormous efforts are invested in the development and validation of biomarkers that enable sensitive and cost-effective testing using substrates that can be obtained in a noninvasive manner, such as clinical and blood indexes and liquid biopsy.
This Research Topic will provide an overview of emerging concepts in the systemic treatment of genitourinary cancers and the evolving treatment paradigm in these diseases. It will encompass Review and Original Research articles on targeted therapies and immunotherapy in advanced prostate, bladder, kidney and testicular cancer.
Manuscripts should focus on but are not limited to:
1) Emerging biomarkers in renal cell carcinoma;
2) Emerging therapeutic targets in TGCT;
3) Immune mechanism in TGCTs and potential clinical implications;
4) Predictive biomarkers for immunotherapy in urothelial carcinoma;
5) Emerging new preclinical models for testing GU-related novel immunotherapy.
Important Note: All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.