About this Research Topic
Current treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders involves, in one form or another, pharmacological manipulation of neurotransmitter levels in the brain. Despite decades of research, there has been limited progress in the development of pharmacological targets offering more benefits compared to the currently available treatments.
Modulating the electrical activity within brain networks, altering neuronal function and connectivity, represents an exciting alternative to implement neuropsychiatric treatment success where medications have failed. For many decades, electroconvulsive therapy was considered the most effective treatment for severe depression and other refractory psychiatric disorders. Now there is renewed interest in novel emerging technologies, including vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and deep brain stimulation (DBS).
Stimulation of neuronal circuits, via invasive and non-invasive approaches, is an attractive tool to treat neuropsychiatric disorders because it is nondestructive, reversible, adjustable, and has a favorable side-effect profile. The growing interest in the development of neuromodulation treatments for neuropsychiatric patients who remain refractory to other medical treatment has suggested that the therapeutic effects of brain stimulation techniques are achieved by the integration of single-cell, cell-to-cell, and cell network mechanisms. Translating this knowledge into improved therapeutics requires investment in well-controlled, translational, and interdisciplinary preclinical and clinical studies in disease-relevant models.
The goal of this Research Topic is to provide a concise reflection on safe and effective use, as well as on the challenges, of current and future stimulation modalities. We will present recent advances in the neuromodulation field for neuropsychiatric disorders to better understand the molecular, cellular, and network mechanisms contributing to its therapeutic response.
This Research Topic will encompass a translational overview of the neural stimulation approaches in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, addiction, Tourette syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, among others.
We welcome all article types, with a preclinical, clinical, or methodological focus, addressing the following themes:
• Molecular, cellular and network mechanisms underlying neural stimulation;
• Diverse and new neural targets for stimulation;
• Biomarkers’ identification and detection for neural stimulation;
• Development of algorithms, technological innovations, and procedures to provide an individualized and more efficient neural stimulation
Keywords: Neural Stimulation, Neuromodulation, Neuropsychiatric disorders, Depression, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Tourette syndrome
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