About this Research Topic
Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that has been widely explored to offer applications in areas of food, agriculture, environment, industry, and medicine. Green synthesis of nanomaterials (NMs) has emerged as an efficient, economical and eco-friendly fabrication methodology compared to the use of chemical or physical methods that may involve use of toxic chemicals or energy intensive processes, respectively. Plant- and animal product-mediated biosynthesis of nanoparticles has been extensively reported and the nanoparticles obtained are used for several applications. Indeed, green synthesis offers the advantage of enhanced bio-compatibility, making such NMs better candidates for biomedical applications (for antimicrobial or anticancer activity, as agents for targeted drug delivery, biosensors, bio-imaging etc.).
Microorganism-assisted synthesis of nanomaterials has emerged as a promising approach in the last decade. Microbial products such as reducing enzymes, functional groups of non-enzyme proteins, or polysaccharides can be involved in the synthesis of NMs. Thus, microbially-fabricated nanomaterials are synthesized either intracellularly or extracellularly by microbes. More recently, researchers have also used microbes as biotemplates or moulds for synthesis of NMs. Bacteria, fungi, viruses, and algae have a vast diversity of size and shapes and may show various functional groups on their surfaces, which can be tuned to produce NMs on a large scale and also offer more reproducible results.
Size, shape and composition of the NMs play an important role in deciding their application. Understanding the molecular mechanisms for synthesis of NMs will provide information to control the morphology and crystallinity of these NMs and thus help in their appropriate commercialization for diverse applications. Furthermore, these mechanisms may play a critical role in exploiting the microbes used in biomineralization and bioremediation of environmental contaminants.
The aim of this Research Topic is to collect contributions from scientists working in diverse areas who have developed methods for synthesis of microbially-fabricated NMs, especially highlighting their current status for suitable applications in the field of medicine, food, agriculture, industry, or in environment (bioremediation and biomineralization). Research article depicting microbially-fabricated NMs with distinct electronic, optoelectronic and physicochemical properties and their suitable applications in areas of chemistry, electronics, medicine, and agriculture are also welcome. Comparisons of the application potentials of nanomaterials fabricated in this method to those fabricated with conventional methods are particularly welcome. Articles can be in the form of Original Research or Review articles on the various topics though not limited to those listed below:
• Approaches for using microbes and their products for synthesis of nanomaterials
• Approaches for using microbes as templates for synthesis of nanomaterials
• Optimization of methods for synthesis of microbial nanomaterials on a large scale
• Molecular pathways involved in synthesis of microbial nanomaterials
• Applications of microbially-fabricated nanomaterial in medicine, food, agriculture, environment and for other industrial purposes.
Dr. Basavanna holds a patent related to the synthesis of microbial nanomaterials. The other Topic Editors declare no competing interests with regards to the Research Topic theme.
Keywords: Bio-Fabrication, Microbial Nanomaterial, Microbial Nanofactory, Biotemplate, Biomineralization, Nano-Bioremediation, Biosensor, Nano-Biomedicine.