About this Research Topic
Leishmaniasis is a complex disease with several types from self-limited cutaneous to fatal visceral forms and is a worldwide health problem, especially in poor populations. Leishmania species, the parasitic etiological agents, are mainly transmitted by sandfly species to vertebrate hosts. Leishmaniasis, as a vector-borne disease, has a dynamic cycle that is affected by climatic and man-made environmental changes, human lifestyles and movement, and animal reservoirs. Global warming, geo-climatic changes, tight overseas economic relationships, and rapidly growing travel cause the emergence of the disease in non-endemic areas or re-emergence in regions which have not been considered as leishmaniasis foci for decades. Highly efficient technologies such as GIS (Geographic Information System) and remote sensing have contributed to new findings of environmental, climatic, and human factors, and their associated influence on infectious diseases. Now, a comprehensive view based on the collection of previous investigations seems to be necessary to help researchers in developing models for predicting emergence and re-emergence of leishmaniasis in non-endemic areas.
Different studies have investigated the effects of different geo-climatic factors on leishmaniasis occurrence and distribution including: rain, humidity, evaporation, freezing periods, sunlight hours, temperature, elevation and scope; proximity to rivers, gardens, farms, jungles, bare lands, range lands and other geographical features; and also human populations and lifestyles, war, political instabilities, population movement and socio-economic changes. Some findings and data confirmed by other studies are controversial. On the other hand, differences between methodological properties and cut points of defined determinants may have led to such findings. This Research Topic intends to produce a collection of articles to provide researchers with a meta-data resource and identify best fit models for predicting hazard maps of emerging and re-emerging foci of leishmaniasis.
Areas to be covered in this Research Topic may include, but are not limited to:
• Effect of climatic factors on leishmaniasis in endemic and emerging foci;
• Environmental changes and their association with changes in leishmaniasis epidemiology;
• Leishmaniasis, global warming and deforestation;
• Human movement and emerging foci;
• Globalization and leishmaniasis;
• Urbanization and leishmaniasis;
• Animal habitat changes and distribution of leishmaniasis;
• Parasite and vector population genetics and geo-climatic changes;
• New Leishmania strains in new foci;
• Designated countries and leishmaniasis;
• Leishmaniasis re-emergence;
• Hazard zones of the future leishmaniasis epidemics.
Keywords: Leishmaniasis, geo-climatic, emergence, re-emergence, modelling
Important Note: All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.