About this Research Topic
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide radicals (O2·−), hydroxyl radicals (OH•) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), display various reactivities toward a range of biological targets such as proteins, lipids and DNA thus playing a key role in regulating physiological functions of living organisms. ROS can be generated as byproducts from cellular metabolism through the electron transport chain (ETC) in the mitochondria as well as via cytochrome P450. Researchers have been taking advantage of the intrinsic biochemical properties of ROS to probe the mechanisms of growth, fitness or aging of living organisms and to further contribute to biomedical advances. In recent years, advances in nanotechnology have led to a wide variety of nanomaterials with unique ROS-responsive properties. These nanomaterials are able to guide the temporospatial dynamic behaviors of ROS in biological environments to treat disorders of the nervous system.
ROS contribute to disease initiation by promoting mutagenesis and/or possibly activating signaling pathways that account for proliferation, survival, and stress resistance. Meanwhile, ROS also limits cancer initiation via causing oxidative stress that kills cancer cells. Consequently, cancer depends on a variety of mechanisms to suppress ROS and to interact with oxidative stress. Additionally, ROS are usually overproduced in various inflammatory tissues. Overproduction of ROS may disrupt cellular homeostasis, cause non-specific damage to critical components, and lead to a series of diseases. Thereby, regulating the levels of ROS is important for destinations of cells in the treatment of nervous system disorders.
Redox balance and oxidative stress are orchestrated by antioxidant enzymes, reduced thiols and NADP (H) cofactors. Fluctuations in ROS levels may have a great impact on human disease progression and health. For example, at lower levels ROS activate signals that can be advantageous for cells, promoting proliferation, survival, or oxidative stress resistance. At higher levels, the ability of ROS to mutate DNA is critical for cancer cell death or progression. Furthermore, excessive ROS are usually produced in various inflammatory tissues, leading to oxidative stress. As a result, anti-ROS methods have recently been well accepted as therapy for disorders of the nervous system.
ROS overproduction is viewed as a kind of triggering event similar to acidic pH or overproduced enzymes found in pathological microenvironments. Thereby, ROS-responsive nanomaterials have been identified as a type of promising therapeutic strategy to alleviate oxidative stress under pathological microenvironments in disorders of the nervous system.
The scope of this Research Topic covers the design and synthesis of nanomaterials and exploration of their biomedical applications, with a focus on the regulation of ROS or response to ROS to treat disorders of the nervous system.
The Research Topic is open to Original Research, Perspective and Review articles. Suitable topics include, but are not limited to, the following:
• Design and synthesis of ROS-responsive nanomaterials, including polymers, carbon materials, and other relevant organic and inorganic materials
• Nanomaterial-directed ROS regulation to treat or diagnose disorders of the nervous system, including trauma, infections, degeneration, structural defects, tumors, blood flow disruption, and autoimmune disorders.
Keywords: Nanomaterials, ROS, Signal Path, Physiological Microenvironments, Disorders of the Nervous
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