About this Research Topic
Despite the great efforts of scientists and physicians supported by the World Health Organization (WHO), Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top 10 causes of death. Since the 1950s there had been a decrease in the number of TB incidences due to the introduction of new anti-tubercular agents and improved clinical practices, however, morbidity and mortality have risen once again since the 1980s.
TB has once again become a major bacterial cause of worldwide mortality, and thus, it remains a serious global problem. Globally, there are an estimated 10 million people have newly developed TB, resulting in an estimated 1.6 million deaths in 2017. This number has been increasing since 2009.
Drug-resistant TB continues to be a great health crisis. Globally, 3.5% of new TB cases and 18% of previously treated cases are multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). More than half of previously treated cases are in the countries of the former Soviet Union, India, and China. Among cases of MDR-TB in 2017, 8.5% were estimated to be extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) and there were also some cases of totally drug-resistant TB (TDR-TB) found as well.
About 23% of the world's population is estimated to have a latent TB infection and are thus at risk of developing active TB disease during their lifetime. In 2010, after 20 years, a new species of a bacterium belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex, M. mungi, was discovered. With the increasing immunocompromised population, initially non-pathogenic mycobacterial strains (M. avium, M. kansasii, M. intracellulare, M. abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. smegmatis, etc.), so-called atypical or non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), have been now recognized as significant human pathogens. Due to suppressed immunity, these strains cause difficult to treat or incurable diseases, such as pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis, skin and soft tissue disease, and gastrointestinal and skeletal infections that result in significant morbidity. The increasing resistance refers to the urgency to design and discover anti-tubercular agents with new and innovative modes of action, i.e. to design new entities from new chemical classes influencing new targets or to design new multi-target agents. On the other hand, the R&D procedure of agents with a new mode of action is relatively long and risky; therefore, many R&D processes are focused on old drug repurposing.
The aim of this Research Topic is to cover promising, recent, and novel research trends in the design, synthesis, biological screening, and applications of agents with anti-tubercular and, in general, anti-mycobacterial potential. Areas to be covered in this Research Topic may include, but are not limited to:
• Drug design & discovery
• Biological screening
• Structure-activity relationships
Manuscripts concerning similar or strongly related topics are also encouraged. Original Research, Review, Mini-Review, and Perspective articles are all welcome.
Keywords: Drug design, Drug discovery, Synthesis, Biological screening, Tuberculosis, Structure-activity
Important Note: All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.