About this Research Topic
Poisoning appears to be an uncommon cause of disease and death in animals compared to other types of clinical problems, namely infectious diseases, traumatic injuries or malignant neoplasms. One reason for this may be the lack of information about the most common toxicants affecting different animal species, and their mechanism of action, which can make diagnosis difficult.
For livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, others) and poultry (chicken, turkey, ducks, others) species, the most common toxic agents associated with poisoning situations are toxic plants and mycotoxins, but metals (copper, lead), pesticides (lindane, endosulfan), industrial chemicals (polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, dibenzofurans) are responsible for other poisoning cases reported.
For pet animals (dogs, cats, horses, birds, rabbits, others), exposure to insecticides (carbamate, organophosphate, paraquat, strychnine, metaldehyde, herbicides) is a frequent cause of poisoning but anticoagulant rodenticides, plant toxins, metals (lead) and inadvertent use of veterinary and human drugs and household products also pose a significant risk.
In the case of wildlife, different animal species (birds, foxes, leporids, mustelids, wild boar, wolf, red deer, etc) are also victims of deliberate primary or secondary poisonings, in addition to specific environmental disasters (e.g. oil spill) . Metals and metalloids (lead, zinc, arsenic, copper, thallium, cadmium and mercury) and pesticides (mainly anticholinesterases and anticoagulants) are frequent causes of poisoning and often have fatal consequences. In aquatic ecosystems, pollution results from the intentional release of chemicals and/or from industrial, agricultural and urban wastes.
Identification and quantification of biomarkers are important for the evaluation of animal biological/biochemical responses and for the identification of the toxic agent that caused the damage or death. These biomarkers are useful to support therapeutic decisions, for the definition of treatment and environmental protection and management policies. Biomarkers should be obtained, whenever possible, from easily accessible, preferably noninvasive, or minimally invasive body fluids such as blood plasma, urine, milk, sweat and saliva, or other materials, namely hair, feathers and feces.
This Research Topic aims to bring together high-quality research, highlighting the importance of the use of biomarkers for Animal Biomonitoring. The submission of new and comparative methodologies and new analytical methods is welcomed. Review articles are also welcomed. Potential topics include but are not limited to the following:
• Animal experimentation/Animal alternative models/Models for toxicological testing and development of biomarkers;
• Characterization, application, and validation of biomarkers;
• Biomarkers of toxicity for dietary ingredients;
• Cutting-edge technologies used to detect biomarkers of exposure and effect;
• Molecular-cellular toxicology;
• Toxicological pathology;
• Toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic modeling;
• Environmental contaminants (Endocrine disruptors, Metals, Pesticides);
• Poisonous/Toxic plants;
• Effects of climate change and soil on the synthesis of toxins;
• Reproductive toxicology;
• Teratogenic agents of chemical or physical nature, biochemical mechanisms, and dose of the teratogens;
• Genetic susceptibility/Embryonic/fetal susceptibility to teratogens.
**Guest Editor Ana Sousa holds patents relating to processes for purifying antigens. All other Guest Editors declare no competing interests with regard to the Research Topic subject.**
Keywords: toxicoepidemiology, biomarkers, environmental contaminants, plant poisoning, pathology
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