About this Research Topic
Mitochondria has its own genome, which encodes 13 proteins. There is evidence that the mitochondrial genome possibly contains lncRNAs and miRNAs. However, whether and how these ncRNAs function is not fully understood. Proteomics evaluations have identified more than 2000 proteins that are found in the mitochondria. This data suggests that the majority of mitochondrial proteins are products of nuclear genes and are synthesized in the cytosol, then translocated into mitochondria. In fact, there are multiple miRNAs that are known to translocate into mitochondria after synthesis in a different cellular compartment. These miRNAs alter mitochondrial function and play a critical role in nuclear-mitochondrial communication. Recently, this subset of ncRNAs have garnered more attention in various pathophysiological conditions.
Since the identification of miRNAs in the mitochondrial compartment in early 2011, publications on this topic have increased exponentially. Most of these reports are providing novel information about how these ncRNAs within the mitochondria alter cellular function. However, there are some reports that have been misleading. Therefore, collecting all the experts in mitochondrial ncRNAs in one edition will be tremendously helpful for educating the scientific community. Recent advancements in RNA-sequencing technology have enticed new researchers to begin investigating mitochondrial ncRNAs. Therefore, there is a great need for basic information and standardized guidelines, such as normalization controls and pure RNA isolation procedures, to conduct rigorous research in this field. By gathering all the experts in mitochondrial ncRNAs, we believe that we can generate a comprehensive report for the broader community, that includes areas that require further research and validation.
Almost every cell type in our bodies have mitochondria. Therefore, mitochondrial ncRNA can potentially alter any disease condition. In fact, there are numerous studies that have validated these roles in various disease conditions.
This Research Topic aims to address the following questions:
• Overview of ncRNA in mitochondria – types of mitochondrial ncRNA; i) mitochondrial genome encoded or ii) nuclear genome encoded then translocate into the mitochondria.
• Methods of isolating high-quality ncRNAs from mitochondrial pellets.
• Role of mitochondrial ncRNAs in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes and musculo-skeletal development.
• Importance of ncRNA in physiological conditions, such as gender differences and aging.
• Nuclear-mitochondrial communication in cellular functions.
• Future of ncRNA in human health.
Keywords: microRNA, non-coding RNA, Mitochondria, Human health
Important Note: All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.