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Rapid advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have revolutionized our understanding of mammalian DNA and RNA. Recently identified RNA modifications have emerged as a new layer of the regulatory mechanism controlling gene expression, which plays an important role in human cancers, immune diseases, ...

Rapid advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have revolutionized our understanding of mammalian DNA and RNA. Recently identified RNA modifications have emerged as a new layer of the regulatory mechanism controlling gene expression, which plays an important role in human cancers, immune diseases, genetic birth defects, metabolic diseases, and neurological diseases.

The general functions and roles of RNA modification have been well described in the past decades, including N6-methyladenosine (m6A), N1-methyladenosine (m1A), 5-methylcytosine (m5C), 5-methyluridine (m5U), and adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) editing. Due to next-generation sequencing technologies and sequencing adaptations, an accumulating number of chemical modifications on adenosine (A), guanosine (G), cytidine (C), and uridine (U) nucleosides in RNA have also been identified, affecting the structure, biogenesis, and function of RNA. Moreover, these epigenetic modifications are found not only in messenger RNA but also in non-coding RNA, adding additional complexity to the RNA world.

Dysregulation and mutation in RNA modification systems have been associated with various types of cancers, including breast cancer, lung cancer, leukemia, stomach cancer, and liver cancer. However, the details of the mechanism and the heterogeneity of how RNA modification influences cancer development and prognosis are still unknown. Thus, targeting dysregulated regulators of RNA modification presents an attractive strategy for cancer therapy.

In this Research Topic, we would like to focus on the roles and therapeutic implications of RNA modification in human cancers. We welcome the submission of Mini-reviews, Reviews, and Original Research articles related to genetic and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in RNA modification system.

This Research Topic will cover, but not be limited to, the following:
1. Genome-wide RNA modification landscape research for individual human cancers or pan-cancer analysis. Identification of new RNA modification sites of interests that are involved in gene expression regulation, RNA splicing, RNA exporting, RNA stability, and protein translation. In this field, solid techniques such as RIP-seq, Chem-seq, and direct RNA sequencing are required. NGS data must be deposited to public databases such as GEO and SRA.
2. Identification of genome and epi-transcriptome editing that can restore or remove functional RNA modification sites, and their clinical applications for cancer therapy.
3. Mechanisms of potential inhibitors or agonists that targeting RNA modification regulators in mediating responses of cancer to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy.
4. Genome-wide detection methods used to identify RNA modification, including experiments and computational prediction.

Conflict of Interest Statement:
Dr. Tianbao Li is the Research Director of Geneis Beijing Co. Ltd. All other topic editors declare no competing interests with regards to the Research Topic subject.

Keywords: RNA modification, Epigenetics, Sequencing technologies, Human Cancers


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