About this Research Topic
The endogenic microRNAs (miRNA) are evolutionary conserved small noncoding RNAs molecules of about 19-25 nucleotides in length. MiRNAs act as novel gene regulators by base-pairing with the corresponding messenger RNA (mRNA) leading to inhibiting their translation or cleavage through recruiting the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). It is already known that miRNAs are found in 271 organisms. The human genome expressed 1917 precursor miRNAs leading to the production of 2654 mature miRNAs. MiRNAs control up to 60% of the protein-coding genes. The miRNAs are spread in the entire genome including both intergenic and intragenic locations and play a pivotal role in the regulation of crucial biological pathways.
It is already being known that miRNAs are considered novel biomarkers for infectious and inherited diseases. They are being used to design different types of vaccines for emerging infectious diseases. Differential miRNAs expression is linked to various anomalies in the body. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are one of the most common genetic variations in miRNAs that are associated with both human and animal diseases. Keeping in view the important role of SNPs in miRNAs genes causing infectious and inherited diseases, the current issue will highlight the effect of functional miRNA-related SNPs on their clinical consequences.
Mature miRNAs are highly stable in extracellular fluids and may act as biomarkers for infectious and inherited diseases in mammals. They also play a pivotal role in fortifying host immune responses during microbial infections through regulating proteins involved in innate and adaptive immune pathways utilized by bacterial effectors. Several polymorphic miRNAs have been reported to contribute to the risk of infectious and inherited diseases. Alteration in miRNA genes leads to severe infectious and inherited diseases. This special issue of the journal will cover the following topics.
-Functional analyses of novel miRNA SNPs associated with human and animal diseases
-Consequences of SNPs in miRNA genes and their potential to serve as diagnostics biomarkers.
-Novel bioinformatics approaches to identify the potential SNPs in miRNA binding regions
-Impacts of mirQTLs on miRNA levels in infectious and inherited diseases
-The roles of miRSNPs on microbiome compositions associated with human diseases
Keywords: MicroRNA, Polymorphism, Infectious Disease, Inherited Disease, Sinle Nucleotide Polymorphism, mirQTLs, miRSNPs, host-immune response, noncoding RNA, RISC, human genome, RNA, Intronic region, mutation, non-coding genome
Important Note: All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.