About this Research Topic
Our immune system must protect us against diseases. To achieve this, it detects foreign and non-self-antigens like pathogens and malignant tumors, distinguishes them from healthy self-tissues and harmless environmental antigens, responds by activating specific arms of the immune system, and fades out once the danger source has been defeated. Immune disbalance can result in diseases such as chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs) and cancer. In patients with CIDs, such as autoimmune diseases, allergies, or atherosclerosis, the immune system is overreacting and T-cells specific for self- or harmless environmental antigens are aberrantly activated and associated with diseases. Conversely, in cancer patients, the immune system is not functioning optimally since tumors grow despite the presence of tumor-specific T cells.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential in programming these T cell responses, which subsequently direct antibody-producing B cells, macrophages, and other innate immune cells. DCs promote either immune tolerance or immune activation, depending on the received signals during their maturation process. This decisive role of DCs in directing T cell immunity formed the rationale for DC-based immunotherapy. The use of DCs to induce a strong anti-tumor response has shown promising results in many trials treating hundreds of cancer patients. Removing activated DC in real-time A recent novel avenue is the use of tolerance inducing DCs (tolDCs), now being tested in various trials targeting RA, diabetes, and multiple sclerosis to restore immunological balance.
Immune therapies have taken advantage of our understanding of the immune response. Treatment of hematological malignancies through hematopoietic stem cell transplantation relies on effective graft versus leukemia responses which need to be balanced with the negative impact of graft versus host disease. The success of checkpoint inhibitors in the clinic is now being understood to rely on targeting both the tumor and dendritic cells.
The focus of this Research Topic will be to highlight how the basic mechanisms by which dendritic cells contribute to the adequate balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory (tolerizing) responses and dedicated therapeutics to restore immune balance.
Emphasis will be placed on the clinical translation of functions including, but not limited to, (i) antigen presenting properties of dendritic cells, (ii) how these processes contribute to the immune and homeostatic functions of dendritic cells, (iii) the emerging immunotherapeutic strategies that employ dendritic cells and.
The submission of Original Research, Review, Mini Review, and Perspective articles that cover, but are not limited to, the following subtopics will be encouraged:
1. Immune modulation
2. Antigen presentation
4. Cell migration
5. Immune stimulation
6. Immune tolerization
7. Immune suppression
Dr. Clark is the director of Dendrocyte Biotech PTY. LTD. and Kira Biotech PTY. LTD. The other Topic Editors declare no conflict of interest with regards to the Research Topic theme.
Keywords: myeloid cell, dendritic cell, antigen presentation, inflammation, cancer, phagocytic receptors, innate immunity, adaptive immunity, transplantation, clinical translation
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