About this Research Topic
Transcription factors (TFs) are proteins that bind specific regulatory DNA sequences, and regulate (activate or repress) the transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). TFs regulate gene transcription in a manner to ensure that target genes are expressed in the right amount, at the right time, and in the right cell. Upon binding to specific DNA sequences, TFs recruit many transcription coregulators to activate or repress the transcription of specific genes. TFs and coregulators play important roles in many important cellular processes, such as cell division, cell growth, cell death, and cellular response to external and internal signals. TFs and coregulators have important clinical implications because their mutations can cause specific diseases, and they can be the target of drug therapy.
There are about 1600 TFs in the human genome. A defining characteristic of TFs is that they contain at least one DNA-binding domain (DBD) that binds to a specific regulatory DNA sequence. TFs are usually classified based on the sequence and structure of their-DNA binding domains. When TFs bind target DNA sequences, they recruit many transcriptional coregulators (coactivators and corepressors). Transcriptional coregulators do not bind to DNA directly, but they regulate gene transcription through different mechanisms. For example, some coactivators can acetylate histones, while some corepressors deacetylates histones. The balance between coactivators and corepressors fine-tunes target gene transcription. However, it is still unknown why certain TFs bind to similar DNA sequences but perform different functions in vivo, why certain TFs can bind diverse DNA sequences. Recent advances in “omics”, molecular biology, computational biology, and structural biology have provided new insights into the molecular mechanisms of transcription regulation.
This Research Topic aims to collate original research, review, and perspective articles relating to the structure and function of transcription factors and coregulators. Specific topics are focused on, but not restricted to:
• Structure of transcription factors;
• Functions and properties of transcription factors;
• Structure of transcription coregulators;
• Functions and properties of transcription coregulators;
• Interactions between transcription factor and coregulator;
• Structure of transcription complexes;
• Functions and properties of transcription complexes;
• Molecular mechanism of transcription regulation;
• Molecular mechanism of nucleic acid recognition
Keywords: Transcription factor, transcription coregulator, transcription coactivator, transcription corepressor, protein structure, protein function, transcription regulation, structure biology, ChIP-seq, NMR, X-ray crystallography, cryo-EM, SAXS, computational biology
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