About this Research Topic
Normal placental development is essential for fetal growth and development. Placental size, shape, and transport function are critical for fetal growth and development. Optimum placental structure and function depend on maternal intakes of both qualitative and quantitative of fatty acids and their subsequent supply. Fatty acids are an essential source of nutrients and energy, but also act as signaling molecules regulating cell growth and function. For example, n-3 fatty acids are indispensable for the fetal brain, and eye development is transported by the placenta. In human placental trophoblasts, fatty acids also influence inflammatory responses, lipid accumulation, and transport and invasive functions. Maternal fatty acids can exert cellular effects on the fetoplacental unit via several different mechanisms.
Placental disorders affect around a third of human pregnancies. The placenta can adapt its capacity to supply nutrients in response to nutritional challenges posed by the mother in the maternal-fetal environment. Long-chain fatty acids are critically essential at the time of embryonic organogenesis and the growth of the fetal brain. Nutritional exposure in utero has a permanent impact on the susceptible adaptation of chronic metabolic diseases. The immediate effect of optimum maternal dietary fats or its deviation on placenta growth and fetal birth weight would help understand their beneficial impact on placentation. The following research areas to be covered: Placental transport and metabolism of fatty acids and effects on placental growth and development; Placental epigenome and dietary fatty acids, Impacts of dietary fatty acids on placental adaptation, and its implications on fetal programming of adult diseases. Clinical data suggest that long-chain fatty acid transporters' expression is altered in IUGR placenta to adapt placenta from oxidative stress. On the other hand, placental fatty acid signaling and nutrient transporter capacity are modulated favorably by supplementing DHA in obese women. Placental expression of lysophospholipid transporter that facilitate DHA accretion showed a promising indicator for optimal DHA delivery in complicated pregnancies.
This Research Topic aims to focus on the following areas:
• Fatty acids and placental structure and function
• Maternal dietary fatty acids and placental epigenome
• Placental adaptation and fetal programming: Impact of fatty acids
• Maternal dietary fatty acids, endocrine function and fetal development
• Fatty acids metabolism in the feto-placental unit and its influence in growth and development.
• Intervention studies using knock-down animal models to understand roles of dietary fatty acids on feto-placental development.
• Meta-analysis on dietary fatty acids and human pregnancy outcomes
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