About this Research Topic
Although it is known that diabetes is a heterogeneous inflammatory and immune-mediated condition, its immune pathogenesis is complex and still not completely elucidated. Recent advances in technology, research methods, and understanding of underlying immunopathogenic mechanisms in diabetes give us hope that more useful, practical, and valuable biomarkers will be identified. These novel biomarkers could be implemented in clinical practice to predict, diagnose, and manage different types of diabetes. Along with the well-established autoantibodies, other immune biomarkers (e.g., T cell-related biomarkers), as well as metabolite and molecular biomarkers can be investigated in patients affected by different conditions within the glucose continuum. Moreover, different biomarkers can also be useful to predict the development of diabetes. Some of them are associated with the immune pathogenesis of diabetes (destruction of beta cells, immune dysfunction, etc.). Almost all known biomarkers can be assessed as a part of the diagnosis and follow-up process of the disease: alterations in number and function of T-cell subpopulations, and presence of autoantibodies. It is worth mentioning that both accessible biomarkers (circulating in the peripheral blood), as well as tissue-associated biomarkers (identified via biopsy, etc.) can be tremendously valuable in clinical settings. In addition, novel biomarkers such as immunogenetic biomarkers and noncoding microRNAs could represent valid tools to assess the clinical efficacy of a given treatment in clinical trials. Biomarkers are also needed to better categorize different types of diabetes (type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, MODY, gestational diabetes, etc.) and subjects at increased risk for development of diabetes, thus allowing for more tailored prevention and treatment strategies. Standardization of biomarker assays, use of tests and data from biomarker studies and, more importantly, careful phenotypic characterization of patients involved in clinical trials are all crucial points for a better and more tailored management of patients with diabetes.
Newly developed, confirmed, validated and clinically optimized biomarkers of glucose continuum alterations could tremendously improve the management of different types of diabetes. Nevertheless, a strategic approach that drives the biomarker identification pipeline and establishes the superior markers is of high importance. High hopes are put on T-cell assays, "omics" technologies and assessment of genetic signatures. With the rapidly progressing development of novel and more advantageous biomarkers, the improvement in diabetes management will rely on a better comprehension of the immune pathogenesis underlying the onset and progression of diabetes. Finally, novel biomarkers may certainly be useful to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of interventions aimed at preventing or halting the progression of diabetes.
All article types are welcome, such as original papers, review articles, etc. This Research Topic will cover different aspects of immune biomarkers of diabetes, including, but not limited to:
Immunogenetic biomarkers of diabetes
Metabolite biomarkers of diabetes
Role of microRNAs in diabetes
Keywords: Immune biomarkers, Circulating biomarkers, Diabetes mellitus, T-cell markers, Immune pathogenesis, autoantibodies, microRNAs, Glucose continuum, Gestational diabetes mellitus, Glucose intolerance, MODY, Autoimmune diabetes, Sarcopenic obesity, Sarcopenia, Myokines
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