About this Research Topic
Recent clinical studies have highlighted the therapeutic efficacy of cancer immunotherapy, such as T cell immune checkpoint blockade with anti-CTLA-4 or anti-PD-1 mAb. In metastatic melanoma, these agents have shown an unprecedented capacity to induce durable object responses lasting for many years; however, the percentage of patients experiencing such profound clinical benefit remains small. Having established this unique capacity of immunotherapy to mediate such durable melanoma tumor rejections, the focus of the field has shifted toward increasing the percentage of cancer patients who benefit from this therapy. The combination of CTLA-4 and PD-1 antibodies synergized in rejecting tumors in a mouse melanoma model, and produced a remarkable 53% objective response rate in a Phase I trial of metastatic melanoma patients. This trial demonstrated the feasibility and potential therapeutic efficacy of combination immunotherapy for the treatment of patients with cancer. Numerous pre-clinical and clinical studies are exploring the potential efficacy of immunotherapeutic antibodies in conjunction with other immune-modulating interventions, as well as with more established cancer therapies such as radiation and chemotherapy. The purpose of this Research Topic is to highlight recent advances in combination tumor immunotherapy and provide insight into the mechanisms by which these approaches synergize to augment anti-tumor immunity.
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