About this Research Topic
Hematopoiesis is the process by which hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) residing in the bone marrow produce all circulating blood cells, which are classically categorized as lymphoid or myeloid. The lymphoid lineages include B- and T-lymphocytes, NK-cells and plasma cells) while the myeloid lineages include granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, erythrocytes and platelets. HSCs retain multipotency and either remain quiescent or self-renew. Blood cell lineage specification is highly dependent on transcriptional programs which are installed upon signaling cues, i.e. hormones, cytokines and/or growth factors, which are produced in response to the individual demands. HSCs recognize these signals through surface receptors, and give rise to hematopoietic multipotent progenitors, subsequently skewing their differentiation potential towards the production of a specific cell lineage. The hematopoietic continuum and proper hematopoietic production must be therefore a highly fine-tuned process. Hematological malignancies, which can be of myeloid or lymphoid origin, are due to the malignant transformation of hematopoietic progenitors precluding normal hematopoietic differentiation. Malignancies of lymphoid origin include lymphomas, lymphocytic leukemias, and myeloma, while malignancies of myeloid origin include acute and chronic myelogenous leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative disorders. Hematological malignancies are commonly caused by a chromosomal translocation, which is rare in solid tumors. While the genetic origin of many onco-hematologic disorders has been characterized, we are at the tip of the iceberg when understanding the impact of such aberrations on transcriptional programs, and how this phenomenon may contribute to malignant transformation itself. Such knowledge might provide alternatives towards personalized treatment after manipulation of autologous progenitors. With this Research Topic we aim at gathering the views of experts in the field and to highlight the gaps that should be covered in the coming years, given the advancement of OMICS unbiased approaches and genomic targeting technologies.
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