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Chemokines and Bone

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Chemokines comprise several subfamilies of small proteins with conserved cysteine residues and common structural features. Chemokines elicit effects on cell proliferation, survival and migration. On bone, both CXC and CC subfamily chemokines promote formation developmentally and in response to hormonal and ...

Chemokines comprise several subfamilies of small proteins with conserved cysteine residues and common structural features. Chemokines elicit effects on cell proliferation, survival and migration. On bone, both CXC and CC subfamily chemokines promote formation developmentally and in response to hormonal and mechanical stimuli. CXC and CC chemokines are also implicated in osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption, with promotion of the migration of mononuclear osteoclast precursor cells having an important role. Chemokines contribute to arthritis-mediated bone loss through promoting inflammation and osteoclastogenesis and attenuating cartilage repair. The success of bone implants is influenced by the effects of chemokines to promote bone formation and the inflammatory reactions to wear particles. Chemokines have a major role in cancers affecting bone, both primary tumors of bone as well as tumors metastasizing to bone. Interactions between tumor cells and the bone microenvironment are facilitated by chemokines through effects on angiogenesis, tumor growth and invasion. Therapeutic agents currently in development for the treatment of diseases affecting other tissues could be useful potentially for the treatment of disorders affecting bone.

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