About this Research Topic
Carbonation is one of the key reactions, which are important for both the environment and industry. With the ever increasing anthropogenic CO2 emission and its detrimental impact on the global carbon balance, the reactions involving CO2 play crucial roles in carbon sequestration. One of the approaches for the permanent removal of anthropogenic CO2 is to convert alkaline materials into solid carbonates, which are thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign. Particularly, calcium and magnesium bearing materials including alkaline industrial residues such as steel slag, fly ash, cement kiln dust etc., and naturally occurring minerals such as olivine (Mg2SiO4), serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4), and wollastonite (CaSiO3) are being investigated for their carbonation behaviors. Both thermodynamic and kinetic studies focusing on the enhanced carbonation of various materials as well as reactor, systems, and economic analyses are being performed by many global research groups. Furthermore, the potential uses of carbonated materials in various industrial applications such as in construction materials and fillers are currently being evaluated. This Research Topic of Frontiers in Energy Research – Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage is themed around carbon capture and storage in alkaline materials, and the papers are the collection of the research presented at the Fifth International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Material Engineering held in New York City, NY, USA from June 21 to 24, 2015. The following lists the key research topics.
1. Principles and kinetics of accelerated carbonation
The fundamentals of reaction kinetics and mechanisms of various carbonation schemes in both natural and engineered systems. Topics will also include thermodynamic and kinetic modeling as well as mineralogical and morphological transformations.
2. CO2 capture and storage by mineral carbonation
Carbonation of minerals, rocks, soils, and sediments in terms of carbon capture and storage. Topics will include but not limited to chemical and morphological alterations in minerals; the stability of carbonated materials; the evaluation of CO2 storage capacity; mineral carbonation as an alternative direct air capture method, and other novel in-situ and ex-situ mineral carbonation technologies.
3. Accelerated carbonation of alkaline materials including industrial wastes, lime, cement, and concrete
Carbonation of alkaline materials such as industrial wastes and cementitious materials. Topics will include but not limited to identification and resource estimation; reaction kinetics and mechanisms; implications of feedstock heterogeneity on carbonation behaviors; chemical and physical characterization of carbonated materials including their potential environmental impacts upon disposal or utilization.
4. Utilization of the carbonated materials
The potential uses of carbonated materials (both minerals and industrial wastes) as well as their byproducts. The evaluation of carbonated materials in various applications will be discussed (e.g., construction materials, paper and plastic fillers) in terms of their performance (e.g., mechanical and compressive strengths) and chemical and physical stabilities.
5. Pilot- and full-scale applications
Case studies of pilot, field, or commercial-scale accelerated carbonation technologies (including CO2 injection into reactive geologic formations) in the context of carbon capture and storage, treatment of industrial wastes, and utilization of carbonated materials etc., Novel reactor design, process optimization, heat and materials integrations, and the life cycle and economic assessments are all relevant topics.
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