About this Research Topic
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a pivotal family of pattern recognition receptors. Activation of TLR pathways triggers both the innate and the adaptive immune systems. Each TLR recognizes molecular motifs belonging to a specific pathogen group. Due to the diverse effects of the environment and of evolution, the number and functions of TLRs vary among different species. Although the ligands associated with infectious agents, adaptors and pathways of TLRs have been widely studied in mammals, TLR signaling in non-mammals remains poorly understood. Furthermore, there are numerous TLR members that are only present in non-mammalian species. The adaptors of TLRs consist of 6 members in mammals, namely MyD88, TIRAP, TRIF, TRAM, SARM and BCAP. However, the number of TLR adaptors in non-mammals is largely unclear. At least, TRAM is absent in any of the fish genomic databases. A clear understanding of TLR pathways in non-mammals is vital to clarify the evolution of the immune system and to develop novel adjuvant and immunostimulants.
In this Research Topic, we aim to summarize, review, and clarify ligands, adaptors and pathways of TLRs in non-mammals with a particular emphasis on functions and interactions at the protein and cellular levels. We welcome the submission of Original Research and Review articles that include, but are not limited to, the following topics:
1. Ligands and signaling pathways of TLRs in non-mammals.
2. Adaptors and signaling pathways of TLRs in non-mammals.
3. Immune regulation and signaling pathways of TLRs in non-mammals.
4. Functions of TLRs in non-mammals.
5. Structures of TLRs in non-mammals.
Keywords: Toll-like receptor, Non-mammals, TLR