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New perspectives in evolution: The superorganisms, symbiopoiesis and integration of systems.

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The human host and its symbiotic microbiome constitutes a superorganism, they act in cooperation and it was suggested that they can be considered a unique evolutionary unity, the holobiont (hologenome theory, Zilber-Rosenberg and Rosenberg, 2008). This hologenome theory is in agreement with the autopoiesis ...

The human host and its symbiotic microbiome constitutes a superorganism, they act in cooperation and it was suggested that they can be considered a unique evolutionary unity, the holobiont (hologenome theory, Zilber-Rosenberg and Rosenberg, 2008). This hologenome theory is in agreement with the autopoiesis concept of Maturana and Varela (1974) and it could be interpreted as a continuity of the Lynn Margulis endosymbiotic theory: The existence of each organism is the consequence of integration of preexisting organisms. The genome of each eukaryotic organism is the result of combination of bacterial, virus and eukaryotic DNA. Horizontal gene transfer is a very known mechanism that it is involved. Finally, the organism is the result of the interaction of their own genome with the genome of the microbiota (the hologenome), and their metabolism are intertwined (as a “superorganism” or holobiont).
This coexistence of organisms and their simbiotic origin could be observed in different environments. Corals colonies are other example of this close relationship and they can be defined as a superorganism.
In humans beings, the peaceful and productive coexistence of the host with its intestinal microbiome was altered since their gradual separation of its partners (Bioma Depletion Theory). The interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic variables results in a failure of this homeostasis and this is related to several emerging diseases.
New perspectives and analysis taking in account the concept of autopoiesis to define life coined by Maturana and Varela (1974), the observation that integration is a process that result in the appearance of the first cells and in the origin of eukaryotic cells, superorganisms, symbiopoiesis, and considering holistic views like Gaia hypothesis that claims that all organisms are intertwined in complex networks , we can understand that evolution is a process that results of the integration of complex systems. This integration is the mechanism that is observed in every level in nature.
Holistic approaches based on recent data from different research areas represent a theoretical framework that not only could explain the emergence of different diseases related to hyper-reactive immunity, but also postulate new therapies and reinforce the necessity of a new evolutionary theory.
The aim of this research topic is to review the data form different research groups or areas and theoretical approaches that reinforce the observation that evolution of life is a continuous process of integration, horizontal gene transfer and symbiosis (integration of complex systems).


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