About this Research Topic
Endothelial cells, lining the interior surface of all blood vessels not only participates in the delivery of blood to all vital organs but also involved in the maintenance of vascular homeostasis. Specifically, endothelial cells play an important role in physiological processes such as the control of vasomotor tone, angiogenesis, leukocytes trafficking, and both innate and adaptive immunity. Despite their importance, endothelial cell phenotypes vary between different organs, between different segments of the vascular bed within the same organ, and between neighboring endothelial cells of the same organ and blood vessel type. Arterial endothelium is long and narrow and are aligned in the direction of blood flow, whereas endothelial cells in veins are wider and shorter and lack the alignment in the direction of blood flow. Furthermore, endothelial cells within the microvascular bed is endowed with a unique set of adhesion molecules, chemokines, transcription factors, and metabolic profiles. Although the notion of endothelial cell heterogeneity is well-discussed in the literature, it may be overlooked in some cases. For example, the evaluation of new therapeutics in heart disease using HUVECs.
A great bulk of evidence suggests that multiple diseases, such as atherosclerosis, ischemia or diabetes have detrimental effect on endothelium, contributing to the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). One of the key common central mechanism that linked all these diseases are underpinned by an exaggerated inflammatory response. In all cases, the interaction between the inflammatory cells with the endothelium plays a role crucial in the initiation of the pathological condition. Indeed, endothelial dysfunction often encompasses a pro-inflammatory endothelium, contributing to reduced vasodilation, and increased vascular stiffness.
Despite great advances in diagnosis and medicine in the last decades, CVD remains one of the leading causes of death in developed countries and is increasing exponentially in developing countries. Given that the endothelium is particularly susceptible to inflammation, therapies that target the resolution of inflammation in endothelial cells may be effective for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. As some of basic pathogenic mechanisms remain in most cases poorly elucidated in specific endothelial cells or lack translational outcomes, thus significantly limiting the actual effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Therefore, studying the mechanistic insights that control these processes in the specific endothelial cells will provide further understanding of the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease and develop novel pharmacological strategies.
Therefore, the main goal of this Research Topic is to provide new mechanistic insights on (patho)physiological events driving inflammation within the endothelium in conditions of multiple diseases, including atherosclerosis, ischemia, hypertension or diabetes. Emerging therapeutic strategies (small molecules, peptides, medical devices, natural products) that specifically target to resolve the inflammatory pathway or process in the endothelium will be welcomed. Furthermore, the Topic Editors will pay special attention to the choice of endothelial cells used in context to the nature of disease being investigated in the study. Topic Editors welcome manuscripts of the following types: Original Research articles, Reviews or Mini-Reviews, Opinions, Hypotheses, or Methodology papers.
Keywords: vascular biology, Cardiovascular biology, vascular endothelium, inflammation, oxidative stress, therapies
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