About this Research Topic
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in maintaining immunological self-tolerance by suppressing the functions both of innate and adaptive immune cells. Forkhead boxP3 (Foxp3) is the master transcription factor that is essential for Treg lineage commitment and their suppressive function. Similar to conventional T cells, Tregs undergo activation when encountered with the cognate antigens and they further specialize in functional different subsets in response to environmental clues. Both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms have been demonstrated to be involved in those processes. Interestingly, recent transcriptomic and proteomic studies revealed notable discordance between mRNA and protein expression in Tregs, emphasizing the importance of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.
mRNA can be regulated at multiple steps after being transcribed, including alternative splicing, processing, nuclear exportation, and degradation. In the last decade, non-coding RNA molecules such as microRNAs and LncRNAs, have been demonstrated as crucial post-transcriptional regulators in controlling Treg homeostasis, lineage stability, and effector function. Tregs have a unique expression profile of non-coding RNA, which changes dynamically in response to different environmental factors, serving as important mediators in fine-tuning Treg function. Moreover, RNA modification is emerging as a new frontier in the regulation of different kinds of RNA species, including non-coding, and accumulating pieces of evidence have suggested an important role of epi-transcription in Treg homeostasis. A better understanding of this field might have important implications for treating a wide range of human immunological disorders.
Hence, in this Research Topic, we would like to focus on recent advances in non-coding RNA and mRNA modification in Tregs. We welcome the submission of Mini-reviews, Reviews and Original Research articles related to post-transcriptional regulation in Tregs. The topics that this Research Topic will cover include, but are not limited to, the followings:
• microRNAs and their control mechanisms in Tregs
• LncRNAs and their functional role in Tregs
• mRNA modification (such as m6A, m1A) and writer, eraser, reader proteins in Tregs.
Keywords: Regulatory T cells, non-coding RNAs, post-transcriptional regulation, immunological tolerance
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