About this Research Topic
Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) have recently been reported to play an important role in immunomodulation and are associated with the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjogren's syndrome (SS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Although EVs can modulate the function of many immune cell types, including T and NK cells, the most effective regulatory activity of EVs is exerted either by binding to the cell surface of antigen-presenting cells or by internalization. In autoimmune diseases, various immune cell function-related genes and signaling pathways, such as PI3K/AKT, NF-kB, PD1/PDL1, and PTEN are aberrantly activated, leading to a progression of the disease. Interestingly, EVs-mediated regulatory effects have been observed in such pathways. The immunomodulation properties of EVs may thus have the potential to be employed therapeutically in autoimmune diseases. For instance, it was demonstrated that exosomal miR-150-5p from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) dramatically inactivated Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) in vitro and alleviated the symptoms of RA in vivo by increasing the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines and reducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory IL-1β and TNF-α. In addition, EVs isolated from the synovium or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) attenuated osteoarthritis symptoms and reduced the expression of catabolic and inflammatory markers in IL1β- treated chondrocytes. Despite these promising effects, further studies investigating the role and mechanisms of action of various types of EVs in autoimmune diseases are needed.
This Research Topic will provide insights into the mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential of EVs in regulating immune responses and ameliorating disease activity in autoimmune disorders. We welcome the submission of Original Research articles, Perspectives, Mini Reviews and Opinion articles covering the following sub-topics:
1. The function of macrophages-derived exosomes in autoimmune diseases, such as SLE, SS, and RA.
2. The mechanisms of the interaction between MSCs-derived EVs and immune responses in autoimmune diseases.
3. The Inflammatory alterations and immune escape induced by EVs in rheumatoid arthritis.
4. The latest cell-free-based therapy against rheumatoid arthritis in clinic or pre-clinic, including wild EVs or modified EVs with enhanced therapeutic efficacy.
Dr. Kuo is the Head of Global Business Development at Predicine. The other Topic Editor declares no competing interest with regards to the Research Topic theme.
Keywords: extracellular vesicles, autoimmune diseases, immunomodulatory roles, MSCs, macrophages
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