About this Research Topic
The probability of radiological/nuclear terrorism acts increases, and it represents a significant challenge for all governments worldwide. Stolen radiation sources placed in public, contaminated food/water supplies, dirty bomb explosions or attacks on nuclear power plants are the most likely incidents. These scenarios might involve the large-scale exposure of populations to a high dose of radiation or radiocontamination within a short time. As a consequence, various acute or late-term biological effects commonly described as acute radiation syndrome can occur (nausea, vomiting, hematopoietic and gastrointestinal injuries, immunosuppression, etc.) as well as the organ failure in case of radiocontamination scenario. The current lack of effective and safe countermeasures against radiation threats underlines the necessity of developing novel radioprotective and mitigating agents and leads to significant investments in radiobiological research.
As ionizing radiation induces specific radiation injuries, adequate countermeasures have to be applied. Although numerous approaches for the treatment of specific radiation-induced injuries are currently investigated, only a few have been approved by authorities for human medicine applications. Recent pre-clinically tested radioprotectors involve immune-modulators, nutraceuticals, free-radical scavengers, corticosteroids, or recombinant cytokines; notwithstanding, the only radioprotector approved by FDA so far is amifostine. It is also the single compound currently being tested in radioprotection-focused clinical trials. Besides, FDA have approved a few other agents for mitigation based on growth factors (Neupogen, Neulasta, and Leukine). That said, effective and safe radiation countermeasures represent a need that has not been appropriately met.
This "Research Topic“ aims to address the current approaches in radioprotection from the perspective of medical countermeasures developed for scenarios involving large-scale exposure of the population. Our goal is to publish research focused on radiation countermeasures that show promise and are currently moving forward. Those medical countermeasures should aim to mitigate or treat injuries associated with ionizing radiation exposure with a significant impact on subsequent casualties.
The scope is focused but not limited to:
- Natural radioprotectors
- De novo synthesis and evaluation of radioprotectors
- Growth factors as radiation mitigators
- New countermeasures for the treatment of radiocontamination
- Nanoparticles in radioprotection
- New emerging tools for enhanced radioprotection
We favor Original articles and Reviews, but we also welcome other contributions such as Short Communications, expert Opinions, Mini Reviews and Book Reviews.
Keywords: Radioprotection, ionising radiation, acute radiation syndrome, radiocontamination
Important Note: All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.