About this Research Topic
Only about 2% of DNA in the mammalian genome is transcribed in mRNA while the remaining is non-coding. Of this latter, a relevant part (about 60-70% of total DNA) is transcribed in non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). In addition to the well-known rRNA and tRNA, other ncRNAs are referred as microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), circRNA (circular-RNA), U-RNAs/small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), exosomal/extracellular RNAs (exRNAs), Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA). These nucleic acids have important gene regulatory capacity and have been linked to all the aspects of cell function and response to the environment in normal conditions as well as during the pathophysiological processes underlying many human diseases.
Accumulating evidence reveals that ncRNAs are involved in the mechanism of action of natural bioactive compounds through the restoring of physiological ncRNA expression levels or by inducing ncRNA altered expression able to counteract or prevent diseases. Moreover, changes in ncRNA expression may be involved also in adverse effects observed with natural compounds.
The aim of this Research Topic is to shed light on the large complexity of the mechanisms of action of natural compounds, expanding our understanding about the roles played by ncRNAs in natural compound pharmacology.
The deepening of role of ncRNAs in the mechanism of action of natural compounds can help to better understand their pharmacodynamics, resistance, toxicity and interaction with drugs.
To pursue this goal, the present Research Topic will include both full length and short research communications, as well as Opinion and Review articles focused on the study of the mechanism/s of bioactive natural compounds implicating the investigation on altered expression of ncRNAs. All the aspects of natural compound activity are of interest for this Research Topic, not only those responsible of desired disease preventive and therapeutic effects but also those involved in undesired effects. Natural compounds may be derived from all the organisms, both terrestrial and acquatic.
Keywords: Non-coding RNAs, microRNAs, natural compound, phytochemical, nutraceutical
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