About this Research Topic
With recent advances in single-cell high dimensional analysis, there is a surge of new cell populations or phenotypes being discovered. With the use of high dimensional single-cell approaches, scientists are finding that major glial cell types in the brain have a previously unrealized heterogeneity. For microglia, unique populations of developmental microglia arise, some of which share similarities to microglia during diseased conditions. Oligodendrocyte lineage cells—once thought to include only oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and oligodendrocytes—are now known to include many more distinct populations. Astrocyte heterogeneity is likely more considerable, with known diversity across layers within the adult cortex, and probably more diversity to still be discovered.
Although these topics are still in their infancy, each non-neuronal cell may take on disease-specific characteristics. Microglia respond to and alter their transcriptomic signature to become activated in response to disease, with similarities and differences between disease states. Oligodendrocytes lineage cells likewise change in response to disease, with oligodendrocyte progenitors even taking on immune cell attributes. Astrocytes also respond to disease by altering their transcriptomic signature; under certain conditions, astrocytes can become neurotoxic. Still, much remains to be learned. What are these disease-associated phenotypic changes, and how much diversity is there between and within neurological diseases? Is each condition possessing a divergent drift in non-neuronal cells? At what point do different phenotypes from single-cell transcriptomic work possess functional properties that are different.
In this Research Topic, we welcome authors to submit Original Research and Review articles focusing on but not limited to, the following subtopics:
1. Diversity of non-neuronal cells throughout life: from embryo to the aged condition
2. How do neuroinflammatory, traumatic, ischemic, and neurodegenerative conditions alter the phenotype of non-neuronal cells located in the central nervous system or peripheral nervous system
3. How does inflammation play into the phenotypic changes in non-neuronal cells under disease conditions
This collection intends to provide various perspectives on the way in which non-neuronal cells are divers or respond in different ways during neurological conditions.
Keywords: astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, single cell RNA sequencing, peripheral nervous system, central nervous system
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