About this Research Topic
Our understanding of the interface between the gut microbiome and avian host immunity is almost exclusively based on descriptive, associative studies which have not established causality. Clearly, the need to elucidate the causal relationships and the molecular mechanisms by which the gut microbiome influences the avian host immune system, both locally and systemically, is fundamental for the translational success of intestinal microbiota-based diagnostics, therapeutics, and adjunct therapies for avian immune development and function that impacts the poultry industry worldwide.
The intestinal microbiome:innate immune interactome is a signaling hub that integrates environmental inputs of poultry, especially diet, with genetic and immune signals to translate the signals into host physiological responses and the regulation of microbial ecology. Based on mammalian studies, this network of interactions characterizes the interdependence between the innate immune system and the microbiota with the two systems affecting one another to orchestrate local intestinal and whole-organism physiology.
As the basic tools for characterizing microbiomes are now widely accessible, the future of poultry (chickens, turkeys ducks, geese) microbiome research is to broaden the vision and approach to enhance understanding the functional mechanisms at the avian microbiome:immunity interface and its regulation of avian physiological responses. Thus, microbiome studies in poultry are at a challenging transition from descriptive studies of association towards mechanistic studies. Essential for this transition is a diversity of thinking (chemical and systems biology, metabolism, microbiology, physiology and immunology) and the development of novel approaches (assays and models).
The aim of this Research Topic is to present a collection of hypothesis-driven, controlled experiments intended to explain the mechanisms involved in the integration of environmental inputs, such as diet, infections, and antibiotics, by the gut microbiota:innate immune interactome that affect the host’s physiological responses, such as metabolism and response to infection. Studies on the development of novel tools, strategies, and/or models that demonstrate the ability of the microbiota:immune interactome to translate the signals from environmental inputs into host physiological responses and the regulation of microbial ecology are also welcome. Studies using biotics (pre-, pro-, syn-) as part of a strategies to modulate microbiome are also welcome if the mechanism of microbiota/host response is detailed.
The Topic Editors declare the following competing interests:
Michael Kogut - Collaborative Research and Development Agreement with Jefo Nutrition Inc.; member of the Gut Health Advisory Board of DSM Nutrition; member of the Microbial Advisory Board for Phibro Animal Health
Mariano Fernandez Miyakawa - Technological Collaborative Agreement with Indunor S.A and Vetanco S.A.
Keywords: avian immunity, gut microbiome, metabolism, interactome, gut health, chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, physiological function, innate immunity, immunometabolism, inflammation, stressors, Salmonella, coccidiosis, necrotic enteritis, diet
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