About this Research Topic
Obesity is a state of increased fat storage in subcutaneous, but also ectopic fat depots. Obesity develops as clinical fate of a disbalance between nutritional overload versus reduced energy expenditure. Because of the complex interplay of biologic with extrinsic factors, clinical care and prevention of obesity has provided only success rate. The discovery of leptin by Friedman and describing the „syndrome“ of ectopic fat accumulation by Unger about 25 years ago, has changed our views on obesity mechanisms dramatically.
Adipose tissue appears to be an endocrine organ producing a large number of adipokines and cytokines as well as releasing metabolites that regulate energy homeostasis and modulate the risk for type 2 diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, and atherosclerosis.
Fat partitioning following lipid overload might be a clue between polygenic predisposition for obesity as well as plasticity of adipose tissue and clinical manifestations of insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, fatty liver disease, and possibly heart failure and atherosclerosis.
Modulation of adipose tissue related targets, like browning of fat cells and modulation of intracellular lipid accumulation as well as perivascular, visceral and epicardial fat may represent a new strategy for the urgently needed novel strategies in the prevention and therapy of obesity and its related diseases.
Therefore, this Research Topic of Frontiers Endocrinology will focus on:
· Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ and target of inflammation
· Fat partitioning and its impact on dysregulation of metabolism and cardiovascular risk
Keywords: Obesity, fat metabolism, cardiovascular complications, diabetes, adipose tissue, inflammation, cardiovascular risk, ectopic fat, adipokines, insulin resistance, fatty liver disease
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