About this Research Topic
Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWDs), especially delayed sleep-wake phase disorder, affect many adolescents and young adults, and disrupt their psycho-socio-physio well-being. The manifestation of the disorders is often complex, with mutual interaction among the chronobiological disruption, comorbidities including mood disorders and developmental disorders, and psychological-behavioral characteristics attributable to this age group. The underlying pathophysiology has been discussed but also remained to be elucidated, especially in this context. CRSWD may not simply be a disorder with abnormal circadian phase position, and not only core circadian regulatory processes, but also homeostatic processes of both of sleep and psychiatric functions may have a role. Evidence regarding practical aspects such as clinical measurements of symptoms and circadian markers, effective interventions, and treatment outcome or long-term course is also insufficient.
The aim of this Research Topic is to further advance the understanding of the pathophysiology of CRSWDs, and also to accumulate evidence regarding their clinical management. Comorbidity may be one of the key players for both pathophysiology and management; therefore, the aim of this Topic is also elucidation of the relationship and shared aspects among these disorders.
This Research Topic focuses mainly on intrinsic CRSWDs, especially delayed sleep-wake phase disorder; however, other type of CRSWD or relevant conditions such as late chronotype, social jetlag, and other circadian disruptions could be included. We aim to cover the following areas:
• pathophysiology including core circadian regulatory system, sleep homeostasis, and other systems relating biological rhythm
• pathophysiology regarding cognitive and behavioral domain, relevance to psychological characteristics
• pathophysiology regarding reward system, attention regulatory system, relevance to monoaminergic system
• comorbid mood disorders and developmental disorders (ASD, ADHD), and shared pathophysiology
• behavioral issues under related conditions such as late chronotype or social jetlag
• clinical assessments including feasible phase determination and other biological markers
• circadian intervention including melatonin receptor agonists and bright light therapy (appropriate dose and timing)
• cognitive-behavioral intervention specialized for circadian disturbance
• treatment outcomes and long-term prognosis.
Keywords: Circadian sleep-wake phase disorder: pathophysiology, comorbidity, and treatment
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