About this Research Topic
Viruses are one of the leading causes of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in humans worldwide, causing clinical signs such as diarrhea and vomiting, affecting all ages and especially children under 6 years old. Among the most common viruses are human Rotavirus (RVs), Adenovirus 40/41, Astrovirus and two genera of the Caliciviridae family, Sapovirus (SaV) and Norovirus (NoV). The latter are the main etiological viral agents of AGE in all age groups, while RVs, enteric Adenovirus and Astrovirus cause diarrheal diseases mainly in infants and young children worldwide. Although, most of these enteric viruses were identified in the 70s, the molecular mechanisms behind their pathogenesis and the induced immune response in the host remain poorly understood. Some of the main reasons for this, have been the lack of robust culture systems and susceptible small animal models for studying these AGE viruses. Nevertheless, important advances have been achieved in the last years to tackle these limitations.
Currently, limited information regarding the molecular mechanisms behind pathogenesis of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) viruses, as well as deeper understanding of the host immune response against these viral agents is available.
This research topic aims to contribute to solving the remaining questions regarding these themes, which can be further elucidated by: optimizing cell culture systems as well developing surrogate small animal models for studying AGE viruses; better understating the role of Human Norovirus Histo-Blood Group Antigen (HBGA) in infections caused by some AGE viruses; deeper understanding of the immune response mounted against natural enteric viral infections; studying immune evasion by AGE viruses; investigating host and viral factors contributing to AGE virus pathogenesis and disease severity; as well as analyzing host-AGE virus interaction, considering gut microbiome.
Thus, this research topic offers an overview of viral AGEs with emphasis in current advances in molecular mechanisms behind pathogenesis caused by AGE viruses and the host immune response raised to them.
We invite and encourage authors to submit original research, reviews, and perspective articles on AGE viruses, their pathogenesis, and the immune response raised in the host, including research into, but not limited to:
• Host -AGE virus interaction.
• Interaction of the AGE viruses with the host's microbiota.
• The innate immune response against AGE viruses.
• The cellular and humoral immune response against AGE viruses.
• Role of immune molecules such as interleukins and chemokines in response to AGE viruses.
• Immune evasion by AGE viruses
• Host and viral factors contributing to AGE virus pathogenesis and disease severity.
• Cell culture systems for AGE virus expansion.
Important Note: All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.