About this Research Topic
The immune system is a highly sophisticated system that governs a major part of protective and regenerative responses of the host against external and internal microbes, poisons and other dangers. Lymphocytes have definitive roles in this process. Lymphocytes are activated by specific antigens and specifically organize the most effective type of immune response to eliminate each harmful event. Phagocytic cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages, have essential roles in both (i) the antigen-specific activation of lymphocytes and (ii) situation-specific functional deviation of lymphocytes. On the other hand, non-immune cells are phylogenetically expected to participate in the host defense system - not just as structural architectures, but also as regulators and effectors of the protective immune response of an organism. For example, molecules released from damaged non-immune cells affect several types of immune responses. Furthermore, de novo production of bioactive mediators by non-immune cells in response to several stimuli can be involved in these processes. It is conceivable, therefore, that defects in the ability of non-immune cells to mediate immune regulation may be involved in the pathogenicity of a series of inflammatory diseases. In the process of immune regulation, non-immune cells must sense each type of danger signal appropriately, interpret it precisely and activate the most appropriate type of immune response to overcome the specific danger. Nevertheless, the precise cellular mechanisms involved have not been fully addressed. Moreover, a review series that allows us to consider a common mechanism of the regulation of immunity by non-immune cells has not been published thus far.
In this Research Topic, we aim to provide a cutting edge collection of Review and Mini-Review articles that discuss the roles and mechanisms of immune modulation by non-immune cells beyond organs, tissues, and cell types. The goal of this Research Topic is to stimulate the discussion of common and essential roles of non-immune cells in orchestrating the host protective response and inflammatory processes, and to further our knowledge in this field.
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