Research Topic

Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress

About this Research Topic

The human body is constantly exposed to free radicals and oxidants, both exogenously via the environment (food, air, smoke, irradiation, etc.) and endogenously as by-products of normal metabolism. As these molecules are reactive and potentially pathogenic they need to be balanced by the activity of antioxidants, protective factors that eliminate oxidants or prevent their oxidation reactions. Thus, it is extremely important that cells maintain a well-controlled redox-balance. An imbalance in the redox-system will induce oxidative stress, a condition characterized by a surplus of unrestrained oxidants, ROS and free radicals. An important group of oxidant molecules in humans and animals is reactive oxygen species (ROS), which includes for instance hydrogen peroxide, superoxide and the hydroxyl radical. Superoxide and the hydroxyl radical are also categorized as free radicals, a group of molecules that are highly reactive due to the presence of unpaired electrons in their outer electron shells. All these molecules have the potential to react with proteins, DNA and other molecular cell and tissue components, leading to unwanted modifications and ultimately loss of function.
Several physiological processes, such as inflammation, ischemia/reperfusion, diabetes, obesity and kidney insufficiency and neurodegenerative diseases are associated with oxidative stress. Furthermore, hemolytic diseases involving destruction of erythrocytes in an uncontrolled manner, leads to high levels of cell-free Hb which can induce oxidative stress through its reactive heme-chelated iron. Additionally, neutrophil activation during infections results in oxidative stress, mainly due to production of superoxide anions and hypochloric acid by the enzymes NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase.
As the pathways and metabolic processes of disease development are complex and involve many components, the identification of mechanistic biomarkers to improve understanding of disease pathogenesis, aid in the diagnosis of disease, develop therapeutic strategies, and monitor treatment compatibility, performance, and complications is vitally important. The intention of this research topic is to describe various biomarkers of oxidative stress and discuss their possible usefulness in the topics described above. Novel ideas and strategies to discover further biomarkers and potential applications will also be described.


Keywords: Oxidative modifications, disease, redox, patient sample, diagnosis


Important Note: All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.

The human body is constantly exposed to free radicals and oxidants, both exogenously via the environment (food, air, smoke, irradiation, etc.) and endogenously as by-products of normal metabolism. As these molecules are reactive and potentially pathogenic they need to be balanced by the activity of antioxidants, protective factors that eliminate oxidants or prevent their oxidation reactions. Thus, it is extremely important that cells maintain a well-controlled redox-balance. An imbalance in the redox-system will induce oxidative stress, a condition characterized by a surplus of unrestrained oxidants, ROS and free radicals. An important group of oxidant molecules in humans and animals is reactive oxygen species (ROS), which includes for instance hydrogen peroxide, superoxide and the hydroxyl radical. Superoxide and the hydroxyl radical are also categorized as free radicals, a group of molecules that are highly reactive due to the presence of unpaired electrons in their outer electron shells. All these molecules have the potential to react with proteins, DNA and other molecular cell and tissue components, leading to unwanted modifications and ultimately loss of function.
Several physiological processes, such as inflammation, ischemia/reperfusion, diabetes, obesity and kidney insufficiency and neurodegenerative diseases are associated with oxidative stress. Furthermore, hemolytic diseases involving destruction of erythrocytes in an uncontrolled manner, leads to high levels of cell-free Hb which can induce oxidative stress through its reactive heme-chelated iron. Additionally, neutrophil activation during infections results in oxidative stress, mainly due to production of superoxide anions and hypochloric acid by the enzymes NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase.
As the pathways and metabolic processes of disease development are complex and involve many components, the identification of mechanistic biomarkers to improve understanding of disease pathogenesis, aid in the diagnosis of disease, develop therapeutic strategies, and monitor treatment compatibility, performance, and complications is vitally important. The intention of this research topic is to describe various biomarkers of oxidative stress and discuss their possible usefulness in the topics described above. Novel ideas and strategies to discover further biomarkers and potential applications will also be described.


Keywords: Oxidative modifications, disease, redox, patient sample, diagnosis


Important Note: All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.

About Frontiers Research Topics

With their unique mixes of varied contributions from Original Research to Review Articles, Research Topics unify the most influential researchers, the latest key findings and historical advances in a hot research area! Find out more on how to host your own Frontiers Research Topic or contribute to one as an author.

Topic Editors

Loading..

Submission Deadlines

31 May 2018 Manuscript

Participating Journals

Manuscripts can be submitted to this Research Topic via the following journals:

Loading..

Topic Editors

Loading..

Submission Deadlines

31 May 2018 Manuscript

Participating Journals

Manuscripts can be submitted to this Research Topic via the following journals:

Loading..
Loading..

total views article views article downloads topic views

}
 
Top countries
Top referring sites
Loading..

Comments

Loading..

Add a comment

Add comment
Back to top