Research Topic

Manganese-Enhanced MRI: A New Avenue of Functional and Structural Imaging in Neuroscience

About this Research Topic

To elucidate the functional circuitry underlying the mechanisms of information processing in the brain, we need to monitor whole-brain activity changes when an animal displays a specific behavior or function, or how these patterns are upset in a neurological disorder. Therefore, a reliable method for analyzing the neuronal activity throughout the entire brain volume is essential.

Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) or activation-induced manganese-dependent MRI (AIM-MRI) is one of the promising methods for investigating neuronal activities and neuronal pathways in the brain.

Mn2+ is a paramagnetic ion, which enhances MRI contrast by shortening the longitudinal relaxation time (T1) of H+. In AIM-MRI, Mn2+ is used as a surrogate marker of Ca2+ influx, since it can enter neurons through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and cannot be excreted by the Ca2+ extrusion mechanisms such as Na+/Ca2+-exchanger and Ca2+-ATPase. Mn2+ therefore accumulates in neurons in an activity-dependent manner. Thus, AIM-MRI can serve to non-invasively record the history of the neuronal activity.

Mn2+ is also known to be transported along axons and trans-synaptically to neighboring neuron in an anterograde manner, enabling direct monitoring of brain connectivity with laminar specificity. Thus, MEMRI tract-tracing is a valuable tool to study the rewiring of neuronal connections.

Taken together, MEMRI is proving useful as a new molecular imaging method to visualize functional neuronal circuits and anatomy in the brain in vivo. Moreover, AIM-MRI makes it possible to record the history of neuronal activity over the entire brain volume of animals in awake, freely moving condition, whereas blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI, which relies on blood hemodynamics, can only record the activity in head-fixed condition in the MRI scanner. MEMRI can be used for non-invasive investigation of whole brain activity and neuronal connections, which do not depend on blood hemodynamics but directly on neuronal activity. Therefore, MEMRI can be utilized for the study and diagnosis of various brain functions and neurological disorders.

In this Research Topic, we plan to generate a resource of the variety of MEMRI in neuroscience. Specifically, we plan to present original publications, methods, hypothesis & theory, and focused reviews relating to the following topics: Neuronal activity recordings with AIM-MRI, Neuronal tract tracing with MEMRI, as well as the fundamentals of MEMRI. While the scope of possible relevant topics is broad, the authors are encouraged to clearly indicate how their studies address the announced theme of MEMRI and AIM-MRI.


Important Note: All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.

To elucidate the functional circuitry underlying the mechanisms of information processing in the brain, we need to monitor whole-brain activity changes when an animal displays a specific behavior or function, or how these patterns are upset in a neurological disorder. Therefore, a reliable method for analyzing the neuronal activity throughout the entire brain volume is essential.

Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) or activation-induced manganese-dependent MRI (AIM-MRI) is one of the promising methods for investigating neuronal activities and neuronal pathways in the brain.

Mn2+ is a paramagnetic ion, which enhances MRI contrast by shortening the longitudinal relaxation time (T1) of H+. In AIM-MRI, Mn2+ is used as a surrogate marker of Ca2+ influx, since it can enter neurons through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and cannot be excreted by the Ca2+ extrusion mechanisms such as Na+/Ca2+-exchanger and Ca2+-ATPase. Mn2+ therefore accumulates in neurons in an activity-dependent manner. Thus, AIM-MRI can serve to non-invasively record the history of the neuronal activity.

Mn2+ is also known to be transported along axons and trans-synaptically to neighboring neuron in an anterograde manner, enabling direct monitoring of brain connectivity with laminar specificity. Thus, MEMRI tract-tracing is a valuable tool to study the rewiring of neuronal connections.

Taken together, MEMRI is proving useful as a new molecular imaging method to visualize functional neuronal circuits and anatomy in the brain in vivo. Moreover, AIM-MRI makes it possible to record the history of neuronal activity over the entire brain volume of animals in awake, freely moving condition, whereas blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI, which relies on blood hemodynamics, can only record the activity in head-fixed condition in the MRI scanner. MEMRI can be used for non-invasive investigation of whole brain activity and neuronal connections, which do not depend on blood hemodynamics but directly on neuronal activity. Therefore, MEMRI can be utilized for the study and diagnosis of various brain functions and neurological disorders.

In this Research Topic, we plan to generate a resource of the variety of MEMRI in neuroscience. Specifically, we plan to present original publications, methods, hypothesis & theory, and focused reviews relating to the following topics: Neuronal activity recordings with AIM-MRI, Neuronal tract tracing with MEMRI, as well as the fundamentals of MEMRI. While the scope of possible relevant topics is broad, the authors are encouraged to clearly indicate how their studies address the announced theme of MEMRI and AIM-MRI.


Important Note: All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.

About Frontiers Research Topics

With their unique mixes of varied contributions from Original Research to Review Articles, Research Topics unify the most influential researchers, the latest key findings and historical advances in a hot research area! Find out more on how to host your own Frontiers Research Topic or contribute to one as an author.

Topic Editors

Loading..

Submission Deadlines

31 December 2017 Abstract
30 April 2018 Manuscript

Participating Journals

Manuscripts can be submitted to this Research Topic via the following journals:

Loading..

Topic Editors

Loading..

Submission Deadlines

31 December 2017 Abstract
30 April 2018 Manuscript

Participating Journals

Manuscripts can be submitted to this Research Topic via the following journals:

Loading..
Loading..

total views article views article downloads topic views

}
 
Top countries
Top referring sites
Loading..

Comments

Loading..

Add a comment

Add comment
Back to top