About this Research Topic
Nanopharmacology involves the application of nanoparticles to improve efficacy or pharmacokinetics of drugs to their target site and to minimize their side effects. Nanopharmacology in simple words involves packaging of old and new drugs such as chemo, immuno, nucleic acids or small molecules in nanoparticles. Infact this strategy of packaging old drugs inside the nanoparticles is the ultimate solution to growing global threat on patients’ resistance to antibiotics and chemotherapy. Evidently, a successful inetrgration of nanotechnology to pharmacology for cancer treatment has lead to a significant decrease in deaths due to cancer in USA as investiagted by National Cancer Intitative’s program on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (NCI SEER). However, cancer is still the leading cause of death worldwide, in particular in developing and under developed countries in Asia, Africa and south America, with an estimated 22 million cancer cases in next two deacdes, that is roughly 83% increase. On the other hand according to World Helth Organization, global burden due to neurological disorders is projected to reach 103 million by 2030, a 12% increase. Alzheimer and other dementias, which are typical to aging population in developed countries like USA and Western Europe are estimated to increase 66% .
There is an urgent need to develop targeted technologies to improve efficacy of new as well as old drugs that are prescribed to treat neurological disorders and cancers. Since the FDA approval of first nano-enabled drug delivery “Doxil” in 1995, there has been spurring growth in the market of nano enabled chemotherapy for cancer and neurological diseases, almost 50 nanopharmacology products in market and several under clinical trials. Recently approved by FDA in August 2017 “Kymriah” is another landmark in cancer technology development that is based on CAR T-cell based targeted immunotherapy.
In this Research Topic (special issue) on nano pharmacology with a focus on cancers and neurological disorders, we aim to highlight progress in nano-enabled drug delivery with emphasis on targeted and/or non-invasive delivery of the drug to improve drug efficacy (primary focus). We also welcome contribution in other important aspects of nanotechnology for oncology and neurology including but not limited to imaging, image-guided drug delivery, drug delivery across blood-brain-barrier, stimuli-responsive and on-demand drug delivery, nano and microdevices, integration of nanomedicine with regenerative medicine, bioactive nanomaterials, etc. In addition to conventional drug nanocarriers like liposome, micelle, and polymer, we especially welcome researchers exploring inorganic nanomaterials like metals and their hybrids as nano drug delivery systems. We believe the metal nanoparticles are relatively easy to tune for size (for example, smaller the better for delivery across BBB), and functionalize for multifunctional properties with capabilities to allow image-guided light-triggered drug delivery, optogentics, etc. Nano as well as microparticles with applications in neuroprotection, neural regenration and fundamental onco and neuro science are within the scope of this Research Topic.
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