About this Research Topic
The incidence of thyroid cancer has been steadily increasing globally during the last 30 years, most markedly in South Korea, France, Italy, Australia and the United States, with Korean mass screening reporting the highest incidence rates. Thyroid cancer incidence is increasing more rapidly than any other malignancy in the US along with liver cancer. A rise in thyroid cancer incidence is particularly sharp in several countries worldwide where ultrasonography is increasingly used over the last decades for the screening and diagnosis of thyroid diseases. The overall increase of thyroid cancer incidence however cannot be explained by screening only. It must be considered that the exposure to certain risk factors for thyroid cancer like medical radiation exposure, environmental pollutants and life-style changes accompanies the apparent increase of thyroid cancer incidence. However, the real reasons for the thyroid cancer “epidemic”, are not completely clear. The main factors contributing to this increase continue to be debated. More attention should be paid to environmental pollutants and particularly endocrine disruptors with respect to its carcinogenic potential concerning the thyroid. In this context especially, more research is needed on the combined effects of nitrates and radiation. It is very important to find out potential modifiable risk factors and its interaction to help reduce thyroid cancer and develop measures of primary prevention.
The rising incidence of thyroid cancer needs optimization of management of the nodular goiter and the treatment of thyroid cancer. In last decade, new approaches like minimally invasive therapy (radiofrequency ablation (RFA, laser ablation), or new strategies for active surveillance of early stages of thyroid cancer are developing and helping to avoid overtreatment and surgical complications. It is very important to understand the risk factors for the mechanisms of development of secondary primary malignancies, to assess the effect of radioiodine therapy on the possibility of secondary cancer induction. Therefore, we will address these questions in the form of Original Research, Review, and Study Protocol articles.
Keywords: thyroid cancer, risk factors, prevention, nitrate, minimally invasive therapy
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