About this Research Topic
Following the success of the first Research Topic on this issue, “Antimicrobial Usage in Companion and Food Animals: Methods, Surveys and Relationships with Antimicrobial Resistance in Animals and Humans”, we would like to launch another collection of articles on the topic. We would like to utilize this Research Topic to continue the discussion of antimicrobial use (AMU) metrics and expand the topic to include AMU data collection in non-North American and non-European Union countries, as well as for animal species other than cattle, pigs, poultry, cats, or dogs.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently a high priority topic for those practicing human and veterinary medicine. Antimicrobial use is considered one of the main drivers for AMR. In the animal sector, many national and supra-national authorities (e.g., the European Medicines Agency) have established antimicrobial consumption monitoring programs, most of them being based on sales of antimicrobials intended for use in animals. While providing very valuable information, these data also have limitations and make it difficult to identify by whom, when and how the antimicrobial products were actually used. Different central aspects of AMU monitoring remain to be solved, including, among others: full coverage of both companion and food animals, use of appropriate methods for the collection of information at the animal and farm-levels, and choice of metrics of measurement of AMU and animal populations at risk.
The scope of this article collection is to join researchers interested in AMU monitoring in animals around the world in order to exchange expertise, proposals and results covering the gaps mentioned above, in both livestock and companion animals, and use of this information for improving antimicrobial stewardship among antimicrobial end-users. For this second collection of articles, we would like to additionally encourage non-North American and non-European Union countries conducting research or surveillance on AMU in animals to submit their articles (even if there is no comparison of metrics), as well as to encourage those working in minor animal species to report their findings.
Specifically, we would like to encourage the submission of manuscripts that give insight into the following research questions:
1. Comparison of different metrics to characterize AMU in animals (e.g., used daily doses vs. defined daily doses)
2. Comparison of national/supra-national vs end-user (i.e., veterinarians, farmers, small animal owners) approaches to monitor AMU
3. AMU metrics and methods to compare AMU between countries or geographic regions
4. AMU metrics and methods to compare AMU between sectors or users (e.g., benchmarking, or comparison between farm records and veterinary prescriptions)
5. AMU metrics and methods to assess the potential for the selection of AMR
6. Possible common approaches for AMU monitoring in humans and animals
7. Surveillance or research projects regarding animal AMU data collection, analysis, and reporting in low-middle income countries
8. Surveillance or research projects regarding animal AMU data collection for animal species other than cattle, pigs, poultry, cats, or dogs.
We would like to acknowledge Dr. Angelina Bosman, University of Guelph, who has acted as coordinator and has contributed to the preparation of the proposal for this Research Topic.
Keywords: Antimicrobial use, livestock, companion animals, metrics, monitoring