About this Research Topic
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous biomaterial obtained from anticoagulated blood through a simple or double centrifugation process that yields a plasma fraction with different platelet and leukocyte concentrations higher than that in circulating blood. Great therapeutic value has been demonstrated in PRP for the treatment of clinical conditions, such as joint pathologies, which has shown promising application in human medical sciences. The mechanism of action of PRP depends on its content of functional platelets and leukocytes and their growth factors and cytokines released after natural or substance-induced activation. Platelets, but also mononuclear leukocytes contained in PRP secrete polypeptides (growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, amongst others) promote massive chemoattraction of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells to an injured foci inducing tissue regeneration.
In recent years, multiple clinical effects of PRP have been documented in vivo and in vitro in companion and farm animals; PRP has been used, alone or combined with stem cells, with or without in vitro activation, to treat musculoskeletal soft tissues and joint pathologies and periodontal diseases, in osseous healing and chronic ulcer treatment, in wound healing and in the treatment of prostatic cysts. Recently, studies have evaluated the clinical and in vitro antibacterial activity of PRP-related products against various bacteria. In companion animals many different manual or semi-automated methods for PRP production has been described achieving wide ranges of platelet and leukocyte concentration. However, there yet is lack of information about PRP basic biology regarding the release and de novo synthesis of growth factors (i.e.: platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)) and cytokines (interleukin (IL) 4, IL-10, and receptor antagonist of IL-1 (IL-1ra) from PRP hemoderivatives.
In veterinary medicine, there are still few clinical studies with very different outcomes in companion and farm animals. A considerable variability in the recovery and yield of platelets and the concentration of growth factors in PRP preparations are reported. In companion animals, many different manual or semi-automated methods for PRP production are described achieving wide ranges of platelet and leukocyte concentration, but few studies provide information about platelet activation and the values of growth factors concentration. Until now, the components controlling the antimicrobial activity of PRP hemoderivatives have not been fully understood.
This Research Topic gathers original research, reviews and case reports (case reports must describe a novel finding related to platelet-rich plasma use in more than one subject and include extensive investigative documentation on PRP in companion and farm animals). Clinical studies and laboratory original research will both be evaluated.
• Original research
• Review (mini review, systematic review, focused review)
• Brief research report
• Case report series
Keywords: platelet rich plasma, dog, cat, horse, cow, clinical use
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