About this Research Topic
The incidence, severity and progression of many inflammatory diseases differ greatly between men and women with implications for disease pattern, drug response and adverse reactions. Autoimmune diseases (e.g. multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.) and some inflammatory diseases (e.g. asthma) dominate in women; in contrast, immune disorders such as sepsis, post-operative infections and gout show a higher incidence and severity in men. The cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for this sexual dimorphism in inflammatory diseases have not been fully elucidated yet.
Although sex is an important biological variable that affects experimental results, health and disease, it is often an underestimated parameter. In particular, the under-representation of the female sex in preclinical research has led to a poorer understanding of biological, physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms in females than in males. It is of great importance to try to bridge this gap, through an equivalent involvement of both sexes in preclinical research and taking in to account this parameter in clinical trials, too. This need is also reflected in the inevitable waste of resources due to the consequences of a generalization of research results and their applicability to clinical practice to the detriment of both sexes.
This research topic aims to elucidate and investigate sex differences in inflammatory diseases, including but not limited to cardiovascular, neuro, renal, digestive and pulmonary diseases. Manuscripts evaluating sex differences related not only to the pathogenesis, but also in the manifestation of symptoms and the disease course are welcome. Indeed, there are inflammatory pathologies that are more frequent in women, but more difficult to control clinically in men or vice versa. Of interest are also manuscripts evidencing sex difference in the clinical efficacy of drugs already in use as well as in the incidence and frequency of drug adverse reactions. We encourage the authors to submit to this Research Topic from original research to review articles.
Keywords: Drug, inflammation, sex, sex hormones, gender
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