About this Research Topic
Fungi are ubiquitously present in natural environments and colonize human spaces. They include pathogens for humans, animals, insects, and plants, which are incredibly impacting global health, agriculture, and biodiversity. Importantly, superficial fungal infections affect ~25% of the population worldwide, invasive fungal infections with much high mortality rates kill 1.5 million people every year and plant fungal pathogens endanger global food security. One of the most useful and effective options to control the fungal pathogens is antifungals. Currently used antifungals target essential cellular functions such as ergosterol, cell walls, or respiration. Many chemicals are available to protect crops, but the speed of the development of newly licensed fungicides does not keep pace with their demand. The situation is more serious in case of fungal infection for human because the approved antifungal options are very limited.
As a consequence, the emergence of antifungal-resistant fungal pathogens makes it more difficult to fight these pathogens. For plant pathogens, monoculture cropping, and overuse or inadequate use of fungicides accelerate the rapid emergence of the resistant strains. In the clinical setting, the most widely used class of drugs, i.e. the azoles, are less effective due to the emergence and prevalence of the resistant strains. In recent years, multi-drug resistant fungal pathogens appeared and threatened patients in hospitals worldwide. There is growing evidence that some resistant fungal pathogens move from natural environments to human spaces and from country to country along with the global movement of people and trade goods.
This Research Topic is aiming to share the molecular mechanisms of antifungal resistance and actual situation of globalization of the resistance. We also aim to stimulate discussion for the upcoming antifungal resistance in human and plant pathogens. To fight fungal pathogens that can cross the borders, interdisciplinary and international discussions are key factors for success.
The scope of this Research Topic is to cover the interaction of medical antifungals and fungicides with the pathogens, the molecular response to the antifungal compounds available, as well as molecular basis for the resistance mechanisms. The local and global epidemiological research for the resistant pathogen are also welcomed.
The core questions of this Research Topic include:
• When, where, what kind of and how does resistance emerge?
• How different are azole resistance mechanisms in plant and human pathogenic fungi?
• Is drug repositioning possible from humans to plant, and vice versa?
• Is there heterogeneity of resistance mutations in the population of multicellular fungi?
• Is there a difference in the tendency to acquire resistance between strains?
• What are the resistance mechanisms for biological control agents?
• Are genome analysis useful for the elucidation of resistance mechanisms?
• Evolutionary landscapes of CYP51 mutations according to azole use in agriculture
• Azole use in agriculture, is it indispensable?
• Big data science to elucidate adaptation to fungicides in natural populations
• Protein structural changes linked to antifungal resistance
Topic Editor, Dr. Sabine Fillinger received financial support from Corteva AgroScience (2018-2021), Anova+(2020-2023), and Bayer SAS (2017-2018). The other Topic Editors declare no competing interests with regard to the Research Topic subject.
Keywords: Antifungal-resistance, Molecular Mechanisms, Epidemiology
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