About this Research Topic
Anamniotes (fishes and amphibians) make up over 60% of all vertebrates. They are evolutionarily important animal groups with distinctive biology, inhabiting aquatic and/or terrestrial landscapes worldwide. Their health statuses are widely regarded as strong bio-indicators of ecosystem health. At a time when existing and emerging pathogens continue to threaten the well-being and the survival of anamniotes, both in the wild and in captivity, a better understanding of how their immune systems work is essential. To accomplish this, innovative alternative approaches that can overcome the many limitations of whole-animal methods are key.
In vitro cellular technologies are among the most reliable and indispensable methods available and have advanced research and knowledge in animal immunology for decades. The advent of animal cell cultures has made it possible to isolate, characterize, and culture immune and non-immune cells for studying both innate and adaptive immune responses. The establishment of immortalized and engineered cell lines has been a technical catalyst for shedding light on new immunological mechanisms. These cell lines also serve as tools for high-throughput screening platforms, antibody production for diagnostics and therapeutics, vaccine production for control of infectious disease, and antimicrobial drug testing, to name a few.
Fundamental differences in the cellular biology of anamniotes and mammals preclude further studies in many facets of anamniote immunology. This Research Topic focuses on recent advances in in vitro cellular technologies for advancing research in anamniote vertebrate immunology. Specifically, we welcome manuscripts exploring:
1. Novel methods to isolate, characterize, and culture immune and non-immune cells
2. Novel methods to establish and characterize primary, long-term, and permanent cell cultures
3. Novel methods to immortalize hard-to-immortalize cells
4. Novel transfection methods to improve transfection efficiencies of hard-to-transfect cells
5. Identification of mitogens of novel immune cell types in vitro (for example, Langerhans cells, Kupffer cells, microglial cells, etc).
6. Use of anamniote cell culture approaches to characterize novel gene/protein expressions, elucidate novel immune mechanisms, and delineate epigenetic regulation of immune responses
7. Novel methods to generate engineered anamniotes cell lines (for example, using TALEN, CRISPR, lentiviral, piggybac, sleeping beauty, etc.)
8. Use of co-culture, mixed cell culture, 3-dimensional culture, transwell insert culture, and biochip systems
9. Use of induced pluripotent stem cells from anamniotes
10. Development of immunoassays (for example, ELISpot, antigen-presentation assays)
11. Production of recombinant proteins using fish/amphibian cell systems
12. Novel methods and use of cell culture systems to identify immune biomarkers
13. Novel visualization methods of immune functions in vitro
14. Use of anamniote cell culture systems in immunotoxicology
15. Use of in vitro assays to evaluate the cross-regulation or interaction of immune cells with other animal systems (neuroendocrine, reproductive, respiratory, digestive, etc.)
All manuscripts should address how the in vitro cellular technologies used in the authors’ research significantly contributes to the advancement of the current knowledge of the innate and adaptive immunity of anamniotes.
Submissions of Original Research, Methods, Review, Mini-Review, Hypothesis and Theory, and Perspective articles are welcomed in this Research Topic.
Important Note: All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.