About this Research Topic
Streptococcus genus comprises species implicated in human and animal diseases, in addition to others used in dairy industry. Molecular genetics, taxonomic approaches and phylogenomic investigations detected more than 100 Streptococcus species and 9 subspecies. These studies also contribute to the establishment of pathogenic groups (pyogenic, mitis, anginosus, salivarius, bovis and mutans) related to zoonotic potential, multiple virulence mechanisms and resistance to antimicrobial agents with impact on health systems and economic losses to agriculture.
Nowadays Corynebacterium has more than 132 species, including at least 50 species of medical, veterinary, and/or biotechnological relevance. Despite global immunization programs, diphtheria outbreaks and atypical cases of diphtheria, localized and/or systemic infections independent of diphtheria toxin production by Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans zoonotic pathogen, still occur in industrialized and developing countries. Cases of infections related to different and new nondiphtherial Corynebacterium species have been favored by genotyping, virulence, taxonomy studies and/or laboratorial identification techniques.
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) streptococci spp. and nondiphtherial Corynebacterium species have been reported with increased frequency as pathogens of invasive infections and/or nosocomial outbreaks. Clinical epidemiological, and microbiological features to prevent future problems and guarantee continued vigilance by laboratories and medical community should be investigated. A detailed understanding of multifactorial pathogenic mechanisms is essential to develop new therapeutic approaches, surveillance and control strategies of streptococcal, diphtheria and nondiphtherial corynebacterial diseases, including adhesive activities, metabolite exchange, cellular communication, protection to antimicrobials, and against host immune attacks. Some mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance have been reported for some Streptococcus and Corynebacterium species. Consequently, the formation of bacterial biofilms leads to an increase in healthcare costs and extend hospitalization. The infectivity of the pathogens is linked to cell-surface components and/or secreted virulence factors. Additional studies remain necessary to investigate phenotypic and genotypic properties of virulence mechanisms and resistance to antimicrobial agents involved in multifactorial and complex adaptation strategies to host environmental conditions, such as production of reactive oxidative species and neutrophil extracellular traps, survival within professional phagocytes, escape the host immune response, modulation host-cell signaling and cellular death. Invasive medical devices and/or empirical antibiotic therapy may contribute to dissemination of invasive infection in hospitalized patients.
In this research topic, we welcome Original Research articles, Mini Reviews, Reviews, Perspectives covering streptococcal and corinebacterial pathogenesis in human, animal and zoonotic infectious diseases.
• Phenotypic and genotypic of MDR Streptococcus spp. and/or Corynebacterium spp. microbiological features.
• Antimicrobial resistance features and multidrug-resistance mechanisms of Streptococcus spp. and/or Corynebacterium spp.
• Virulence determinants that contribute to Streptococcus spp. and/or Corynebacterium spp diseases.
• Host-pathogen interaction involving MDR Streptococcus spp. and/or Corynebacterium spp.
• Host cell-signaling pathways during infection by Streptococcus spp. and/or Corynebacterium spp.
• Streptococcal glycans in pathogenesis.
• Innate immune modulation by pathogenic streptococci and/or corinebacteria.
• Streptococcus agalactiae and its role in urogenital health and disease.
• Zoonotic potential of MDR Streptococcus spp. and/or Corynebacterium spp.
Keywords: Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, epidemiology, virulence, antimicrobial resistance
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