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After the influenza virus enters host cells, the virus hijacks host machineries to replicate its genetic material; at the same time, the host cell activates an innate immune defense system to resist virus invasion. A balanced host response can eliminate the virus with minimal adverse effects, but excessive ...

After the influenza virus enters host cells, the virus hijacks host machineries to replicate its genetic material; at the same time, the host cell activates an innate immune defense system to resist virus invasion. A balanced host response can eliminate the virus with minimal adverse effects, but excessive host immune response could cause pathological changes in the host, disease deteriorating, and even death. There are still many details that should be explored.

Since its first discovery in the 1930s, the influenza virus remains a major threat to human health, with seasonal influenza killing up to 650, 000 people worldwide each year. Moreover, cross-species transmission from the avian to humans caused by avian influenza viruses frequently occurred in recent years, such as H5N1, H5N6, H7N9, and H9N2. Therefore, influenza is still a reemerging disease. The mechanisms of the influenza virus replication and virus-host interaction need to be closely examined to explore novel approaches for both drug development and disease management.

The influenza infection can cause moderate to severe illness in humans. Despite extensive research efforts for the past decades, there are still many outstanding scientific questions that we do not yet fully understand about the mechanism of virus replication, the interaction between virus and the host cells, and the host defense/restriction responses to eliminate the infection. By addressing these questions, we will obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the infection for better treatment and prevention of influenza.

This Research Topic collects contributions generally related to the progression of molecular biological processes in the cell after influenza virus infection. This includes, but is not limited to, pathogenicity determinants, the interaction between the virus and the host cells, and all the molecular events during the replication cycles. Both human influenza virus and animal influenza virus will be considered. This Research Topic will accept several types of articles, including Original Research, Review, Perspective, and Mini Review.

Keywords: influenza virus, seasonal influenza virus, avian influenza virus, pathogenicity, host and influenza virus interaction, cross-species transmission, innate immunity, virus replication


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