About this Research Topic
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) as an important process of nitrogen cycling widely occurs in the marine ecosystem, terrestrial ecosystem and freshwater ecosystem. Anammox bacteria belong to the phylum of Planctomycetes. So far, more than 20 anammox species have been found, which belong to six genera, kuenenia, brocadia, jettenia, scalindua, anammoxoglobus and anammoxmicrobium. Anammox bacteria cannot be separated by traditional biological separation methods. The researchers used Percoll gradient centrifugation and gel carrier wrap to purify bacteria. Until now, scientists still cannot get pure anammox bacteria. Anammox has been recognized as an efficient, energy-saving and environment-friendly biological nitrogen removal technology due to its ability to transform ammonium and nitrite into nitrogen without carbon. Furthermore, its nitrogen removal performance is 15-20 times higher than that of traditional nitrification and denitrification.
The research on Anammox started in the 1990s. Although over 30 years have passed, there are still many challenges. For example, we do not learn enough about anammox microbial evolution, cell biology, and new anammox genus; Although anammox has been used in wastewater treatment engineering, the wide range of engineering applications of anammox related processes, especially at low ammonia and low temperature, is still limited. Moreover, the understanding of contribution and function for natural anammox and their habitat diversity is still obscure.
Therefore, this Research Topic will make great efforts to further improve the understanding of the physiological and biochemical functions of anammox bacteria and the theory of the nitrogen cycle process, providing the theoretical basis and practical experience for the regulation of the anammox process in artificial and natural ecosystems. The anammox process would be comprehensively understood from genomics, proteomics, metabonomics, environmental and ecological microbiology, which provides a theoretical basis for improving its advantage in competition, the stress resistance and process stability, expanding the practical application of process, and providing new ideas for the wastewater treatment. It would promote the research of anammox nitrogen removal in natural and artificial ecosystems.
We welcome submissions of Original Research, Review and Mini Review articles around but not limited to the following themes:
1. The unique cell structure, physiological and biochemical characteristics of anammox cells, such as central catabolic pathway, electron transfer system of nitrogen conversion, biochemical mechanism, enzymatic system analysis, and functional genome differentiation, etc.
2. The methods, technologies and principles to solve the problems of partial nitrification and anammox under low-ammonium or low-temperature conditions, such as the optimization of functional flora, the construction of microecological functional carriers and the utilization of clean energy, etc.
3. The cooperation and competition of anammox and other functional microorganisms, and the coupling of anammox and other nitrogen and phosphorus removal technologies, including the change of microbial population, metabolite model and the interaction among bacteria under the condition of inhibition, and the control strategy to maintain the long-term stable and efficient operation of the process.
4. The construction, distribution, activity and its contribution to nitrogen removal of anammox bacteria in different ecosystems and geographical scales, and the prediction of the succession and activity changes of anammox community, as well as its response to environmental changes in the large ecosystems.
Keywords: anammox, bacterial traits, metabolism and electron transport, community composition, nitrogen removal performance, ecosystem function
Important Note: All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.