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Congestion plays a central role in the pathophysiology of heart failure and remains a clinical challenge to detect, prevent and treat effectively. In fact, residual fluid overload at the time of discharge -frequently underdiagnosed- is one of the main contributors to readmission risk. To date, congestion has ...

Congestion plays a central role in the pathophysiology of heart failure and remains a clinical challenge to detect, prevent and treat effectively. In fact, residual fluid overload at the time of discharge -frequently underdiagnosed- is one of the main contributors to readmission risk. To date, congestion has been evaluated through clinical history, physical examination, plasma levels of natriuretic peptides, and X-Ray findings. However, emerging tools such as ultrasound imaging, ReDS technology, and new biomarkers offer earlier and more accurate diagnosis and allow guiding decongestion. In addition, some of the new drugs for the treatment of heart failure have a significant diuretic effect and the weight of this peculiarity on prognosis has yet to be elucidated.

The aim of this Research Topic is to summarize the knowledge about specific mechanisms involved in the development of congestion in heart failure, new techniques to assess fluid overload, as well as to discuss current and emerging treatment approaches to relieve congestion and, ultimately, impact on prognosis. From cutting-edge research findings in animal models to novel tools and treatments used in daily clinical practice will be covered in this Topic.

This Research Topic welcomes review papers and original research on the following themes but is not limited to them:

• Epidemiology of congestion in heart failure
• Pathogenesis of fluid overload, including animal models
• Hemodynamics in heart failure according to Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction categories
• New and old biomarkers
• Development and validation of scores to estimate congestion and stratify prognostic risk
• Novel diagnostic and therapeutic interventions to relieve fluid overload

Topic Editor Carlos Garcia Santos-Gallego receives financial support from Merck. The other Topic Editors declare no competing interests with regard to the Research Topic subject.

Keywords: Congestion, Fluid Overload, Heart Failure, Pathophysiology, Biomarker, Prognosis


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