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In recent years, chemistry, biology, medicine, and nanotechnology have presented novel strategies to inactivate and remove pathogenic microorganisms based on synthetic materials, natural materials, and nanomaterials. Synthetic polymers and biopolymers (with sources of medical plants, microorganisms, and ...

In recent years, chemistry, biology, medicine, and nanotechnology have presented novel strategies to inactivate and remove pathogenic microorganisms based on synthetic materials, natural materials, and nanomaterials. Synthetic polymers and biopolymers (with sources of medical plants, microorganisms, and animals) have shown an appropriate capacity for micro- and nano-formulation of antimicrobial drugs. In the case of nanomaterials, metal and metal oxide nanoparticles such as silver (Ag/Ag2O), gold (Au), copper/copper oxide (Cu/CuO), titanium dioxide (TiO2), zinc oxide (ZnO), platinum (Pt), and iron oxide (Fe2O3 and Fe3O4) are interesting because unique properties such as large surface area to volume ratio and aspect ratio (the ratio of length to width of materials) in nanoscale (1-100 nm). Chemical, physical, and biological methods may be employed to synthesize these nanomaterials.

Comparing efficiency of each antimicrobial agent in vitro and in vivo is a critical issue particularly in the case of blockage of health threating microorganisms such as multidrug-resistant bacteria, fungi, and viruses. For instance, antibiotic-resistant bacteria have ability to neutralize an antibiotic by a specific enzyme, overexpress efflux pumps, and modify a drug target as the major mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Chronic infected wounds such as diabetic foot ulcer as well as bacteremia can be complicated by resistant bacteria and fungi, which are more dangerous for a patient with immunodeficiency disorders. In addition to antimicrobial activity, considering acceptable biocompatibility, bioavailability, and biodegradability properties for preparing an effective formulation is a vital affair. For this purpose, precise evaluation of physicochemical properties of both bulk materials and nanomaterials in physiological conditions can improve the formulations. Understanding of physiology of microorganisms and human also is necessary to target this objective. Therefore, this topic tries to open a new window of promising interdisciplinary strategies according to recent investigations in fields of chemistry, biology, medicine, and nanotechnology.

This research topic focuses on studies (including e.g. original research, review, mini-reviews and perspectives) that present, and discuss:
1) Drug-resistant mechanisms in microorganisms specifically bacteria
2) Micro- and nano-formulations with tunable antimicrobial spectra
3) Evaluation of biocompatibility, bioavailability, and biodegradability of each formulation
4) Comparing efficiency of each antimicrobial agent to hinder drug-resistant microorganisms based on in vitro and in vivo

Keywords: pathogenic microorganisms, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, nanomaterials, nanobiotechnology


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