About this Research Topic
Neuroregulation is a biomedical engineering technology that changes the signal transmission of the nervous system regulates the activity of neurons and their neural networks, and finally causes the change of specific brain functions by invasive or non-invasive means, using physical or chemical methods such as electricity, magnetism, light, and ultrasound. It is not only an effective method to treat nervous system diseases, but also an important tool to study neural circuits and analyze the functions of brain regions. In terms of invasive stimulation, techniques such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat resistant depression (TRD) and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) to treat chronic or recurring depression; while for non-invasive stimulation, procedures such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), modified electric convulsive therapy (MECT), magnetic seizure therapy (MST) and transcranial current stimulation (tCS) in treating depression, have achieved noteworthy results. In addition, in recent years, photobiomodulation (PBM), such as red/near-infrared light irradiation to treat depression, has also aroused great interest from researchers, it is still in its infancy. However, there are still many unavoidable problems in the treatment of MDD with neurostimulation techniques. First, the therapeutic targets and stimulation parameters need to be further optimized, which may be improved with the help of neuroimaging and EEG techniques. Second, the side effects and convenience limit its further application, such as temporary memory damage of MECT, the short therapeutic effect of TMS, and DBS and VNS need to be implanted with stimulators. Finally, the treatment mechanism is not clear, with the help of animal models of mental disorders, molecular biology, neuroimaging, or electrophysiological techniques, it may help to greater understand the principle of neurostimulation techniques.
The purpose of this Research Topic is embodied in three aspects. First, presenting the progress of the clinical application of neurostimulation techniques in the treatment of MDD. Second, exploring the mechanism of neurostimulation techniques in the treatment of MDD, and providing a basis for the research of the pathogenesis of MDD. Finally, discuss the potential and challenges of these new discoveries and new techniques applied to clinical practice, and then predict the development direction of neurostimulation techniques in the treatment of mental disorders.
This Research Topic welcomes a wide variety of research in the field of neurostimulation techniques in MDD, including observational research, interventional research, case reports, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Studies on the following topics will be of special interest:
• Comparison of efficacy or side effects between different kinds of neurostimulation techniques and other existing treatments such as drugs
• Dynamic changes and correlation of clinical symptoms, neural circuits, and functional brain networks of patients with MDD during the neuroregulatory therapy
• Dynamic changes and correlation of specific behavioral performance, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological indexes of animal models of MDD during the neuroregulatory therapy
• Exploring the correlation or causality between neuroregulatory therapy and specific behavioral performance of animal models of MDD from the perspective of molecular cell level or signal transduction pathway
Keywords: neurostimulation, mental disorders, major depression and bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder
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