About this Research Topic
Paroxysmal explosive activity is one of the most spectacular natural phenomenon, which is recognized as having strong impact not only at a local scale but whose effects can also reach far areas and, indeed, can significantly affect the atmosphere, and the environment in the overall. The most devastating and recent example occurred in 2010, when the Icelandic Eyiafjallajökull volcano erupted disrupting air traffic all over Europe for weeks. Between 2008 and 2013, the long-lasting eruption of Chaitén volcano in Chile produced plumes 14-20 km high reaching the coast of Argentina and causing ash fallout as far as 800 km from the vent, and the continuously erupting volcanoes of the Kamchatka Peninsula and of the Aleutian arc have caused often treats to air traffic. The eruption of Pinatubo in 1991 (Philippines) had a strong impact all over the globe, causing significant and measurable atmospheric perturbation and impacting the world temperature. The Laki eruption (Iceland) in 1783-84 caused famine and mortality not only in Iceland but all around North Europe, and its impact continued for three years after the end of the eruption. More recently, Mount Etna in Italy displayed tens of paroxysmal explosive episodes affecting the air traffic, viability, settlements, environment, and economics.
Over time, several studies have been devoted to understanding what drives this eruptive style. Owning to the treating characteristics, so far great efforts have been made trying to detect precursory signals, parameterise the phenomena, apply conceptual and experimental models, and assess the associated hazards. Published papers have used (i) geophysical data aimed at constraining the source region (depth, size, and position), (ii) gas chemistry and mineral geochemistry and petrology to identify the driving force of explosions and characterize the nature of the involved magmas, (iii) volcanology data and observations as well as ground-based and satellite remote sensing to quantify the volumes of erupted products and track the eruptive process, and (iv) laboratory experiments and plume models to characterize the rheology of the erupted products and forecast the impact of the eruptive cloud on the environment, climate, and the whole planet.
With this Frontiers Research Topic, we encourage contributions to review the key aspects of this paroxysmal eruptive style, as well as new findings relating to source characterization, application of novel/integrated monitoring techniques enabling the retrieval of new parameters and step forwards in the knowledge of this type of activity all over the world, technology improvements allowing higher quality of observations, data integration and modelling, and providing more precise hazard assessment tools. Of course, integrated multidisciplinary papers on single eruptive episodes, as well as single techniques applied to different eruptive episodes and or volcanoes will be considered, and papers of multidisciplinary nature and on the impact of explosive activity on the environment are especially welcome.
Important Note: All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.