About this Research Topic
Due to the exacerbated use of antimicrobials, the repertoire of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes in many environmental, commensal and pathogenic bacteria is continuously growing. This causes a major problem in treatment of infectious diseases. This trend can be seen in terminology used to describe AMR, which includes multidrug resistance (MDR), extensive drug resistance (XDR), pandrug resistance (PDR) and total drug resistance (TDR). The AMR resistance genes are disseminated via various horizontal gene transfer mechanisms, mediated by mobile genetic elements that include plasmids, transposons, bacteriophages, and other genetic elements. AMR is mediated via various mechanisms such as enzymatic degradation of drugs, alteration of antimicrobial targets, active efflux of drugs, alteration of bacterial membrane permeability, and formation of biofilms and persister cells.
The commonly occurring MDR strains are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin resistant S. aureus (VRSA), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (XDR-TB), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), bacteria expressing New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1) and MDR bacteria with plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR). The alarming spread of resistance to the commonly used antimicrobials warrants the study of alternative strategies. Novel antimicrobials, contemporary and alternative medicines and herbal based antimicrobials could be suitable alternatives in the treatment of drug-resistant bacterial infections.
This Research Topic will focus on the application of nanoparticles (metallic, organic, carbon nanotubes) and nanomaterials that have antimicrobial activity, inhibitory potentials and anti-biofilm activity against MDR bacteria, as well as the biological synthesis of plant-based antimicrobials and nanoparticles for the inhibition of efflux pump activities, biofilms formation, quorum sensing, and plasmid curing.
We encourage researchers to submit findings based on emerging trends in combatting antimicrobial resistance using traditional and natural antimicrobials, plant and microbial derivatives and nanoparticles/nanomaterials. We encourage submissions of original research articles, reviews, minireviews, methods article, hypothesis and theory articles, perspective, technology report, opinions and commentaries that make a substantial and up-to-date contribution to the scientific community.
Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistance, MDR, Nanomaterials, Nanoparticles, Plant based compounds, antimicrobial agents
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